This volume contains refereed manuscripts prepared from presentations made at the 2ih annual meeting of the International Society on Oxygen Transport to Tissue (ISOTT). The meeting was held in Hanover, NH, USA, at Dartmouth Medical School, the 3rd oldest medical school in the USA. ISOTT attempts to produce high quality pUblications on cutting edge topics relating to oxygen in living systerns. The goal is to allow contributors to contribute original data, as with a main-stream journal article, but also to voice individual opinions and ideas in a more relaxed scientific forum. The meeting brought together an international group of scientists who share a common interest in the measurement and role of oxygen in living systems. The organizers of ISOTT99 made a special effort to bring together people from industry, medicine, and basic sciences in order to improve the links in the chain of discovery through to application. As a result, this volume contains publications on a range of subjects. There are contributions from companies on modifiers of oxygen carrying capacity (allosteric modifiers of hemoglobin and infusible oxygen carriers or blood substitutes); technical reports on oxygen measurement devices including advances in near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging, oxygen electrodes, magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging, and fluorescence based measurements. There are medically related sections on modifying and measuring tumor oxygenation in order to improve therapy, assessment and interpretation of oxygenation in the central nervous system, and general issues relating oxygen to pathological conditions.
Methods for Assessing Oxygen in Tissues.- 1. Measurements of Oxygen in Tissues: Overview and Perspectives on Methods.- 2. Quantitative Brain Tissue Oximetry, Phase Spectroscopy and Imaging The Range of Homeostasis in Piglet Brain.- 3. Tumor Oximetry: Comparison of 19f Magnetic Resonance Echo Planar Imaging and Electrodes.- 4. Mapping Cerebral Glutamate13c Turnover and Oxygen Consumption by In VIVO Nmr.- 5. Monte-carlo Simulation of Light Transport for Nirs Measurements in Tumors of Elliptic Geometry.- 6. Arterial Pulsations are Present in One Third Of The Human Cranial Vascular Volume Penetrated by Near-Infrared Light.- 7. Absolute Frequency-domain Pulse Oximetry of The Brain: Methodology and Measurements.- 8. The Influence of a Clear Layer on Near-infrared Spectrophotometry: Comparison of Measurements in a Liquid Neonatal Head Phantom to Infants In VIVO.- 9. Strategies for Absolute Calibration of Near Infrared Tomographic Tissue Imaging.- 10. Brain Tissue and Sagittal Sinus pO2Measurements Using The Lifetimes of Oxygen-quenched Luminescence of a Ruthenium Compound.- 11. Preliminary Studies on The Photon Path in Breast Tissue Model by Nir-trs.- 12. Epr Spectroscopy and Imaging of Oxygen:applications to The Gastrointestinal Tract.- Protein C Engineering Issues.- 13. Effects of Blocking Buffers and Plasma Factors on The Protein C Biosensor Performance.- 14. Protein C Separation from Human Blood Plasma Derivatives Using Low Cost Chromatography.- 15. Glutathione Depletion Or Radiation Treatment Alters Respiration and Induces Apoptosis in R3230ac Mammary Carcinoma.- 16. Oxygenation and Vascular Perfusion in Spontaneous and Transplanted Tumor Models.- 17. Effect of Mild Hyperglycemia ± Meta-iodo- Benzylguanidine on The Radiation Response of R3230 Ac Tumors.- 18. Effect of Onconase ± Tamoxifen on Aspc-1 Human Pancreatic Tumors in Nude Mice.- 19 Oxygenation in a Human Tumor Xenograft: Manipulation Through Respiratory Challenge and Antibody-directed Infarction.- 20. Tumor pO2 Assessments in Human Xenograft Tumors Measured by Epr Oximetry: Location of Paramagnetic Materials.- 21. Hemoglobin Imaging with Hybrid Magnetic Resonance and Near-infrared Diffuse Tomography.- 22. Tumor Oxygen Dynamics: Comparison of 19f Mr Epi and Frequency Domain Nir Spectroscopy.- 23. Microcirculatory Function, Tissue Oxygenation, Microregional Redox Status and Atp Distribution in Tumors Upon Localized Infrared-a-hyperthermia At 42°C.- Enhancing Oxygenation.- 24. Allosteric Modification of Hemoglobin by Rsr13 as a Therapeutic Strategy.- 25. The Pharmacology of Tissue Oxygenation by Biopure’s Hemoglobin-based Oxygen Carrier, HEMOPURE®(hboc-201).- 26. The Concept of Hemoglobin Equivalency of Perfluorochemical Emulsions.- 27. The Dose-dependent Effect of Rsr13, a Synthetic Allosteric Modifier of Hemoglobin, on Physiological Parameters and Brain Tissue Oxygenation in Rats.- 28. Computer Modeling of Relationship Between Critical Pvo2, Vo2max and Blood Supply of Skeletal Muscle At Working with a Right- Shifted Blood O2Dissociation Curve.- 29. Small-volume Resuscitation with The Hemoglobin Substitute Hboc-201: Effect on Brain Tissue Oxygenation.- 30. Effect of Rsr13, a Synthetic Allosteric Modifier of Hemoglobin on Brain Tissue pO2(measured by Epr Oximetry) Following Severe Hemorrhagic Shock in Rats.- 31. Expression of Myoglobin in The Transgenic Mouse Brain.- Cns Oxygenation.- 32. The Cerebral Microcirculation in Ischemia and Hypoxemia.- 33. Investigating The Role of Nitric Oxide in Regulating Blood Flow and Oxygen Delivery fromIn VIVOElectrochemical Measurements in Eye and Brain.- 34. Nirs Monitoring of Pilots Subjected to +gz Acceleration and G-induced Loss of Consciousness (g-loc).- 35. Correlation of Nirs Determined Cerebral Oxygenation with Severity of Pilot +gz Acceleration Symptoms.- 36. Altered Gene Expression Following Cardiopulmonary Bypass and Circulatory Arrest.- 37. Dominant Events That Modulate Mass Transfer Coefficient of Oxygen in Cereral Cortex.- 38. Relationship Between Redox Behavior of Brain Cytochrome Oxidase and Neurological Prognosis.- 39. Are Vep Correlated Fast Optical Signals Detectable in The Human Adult by Non-invasive Near-infrared Spectroscopy (nirs)?.- Application of Bold Imaging.- 40. Using High Spectral and Spatial Resolution Bold Mri to Choose The Optimal Oxygenating Treatment for Individual Cancer Patients.- 41. Issues in Gre & Se Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Probe Tumor Oxygenation.- 42. Fmri for Monitoring Dynamic Changes in Tissue Oxygenation/blood Flow: Potential Applications for Tumor Response to Carbogen Treatment.- 43. Comparison Study of Oxygen-induced Mri-signal Changes and pO2Changes in Murine Tumors.- Muscle Oxygenation and Metabolism.- 44. Venous-arteriolar Reflex in HumanGastrocnemiusby Nirs.- 45. Muscle Oxygen Consumption At Onset of Exercise by Near Infrared Spectroscopy in Humans.- 46. Modeling of Oxygen Diffusion from The Blood Vessels to Intracellular Organelles.- 47. Muscle Reoxygenation Rate After Isometric Exercise At Various Intensities in Relation to Muscle Oxidative Capacity.- 48. Oxygen Diffusion Coefficient and Oxygen Permeability of Metmyoglobin Solutions Determined in a Diffusion Chamber Using a Non-steady State Method.- 49. Pinacidil-induced Opening, Like Glibenclamide-induced Closure of Cardiac KATPChannels, Protects Cardiac Function Against Ischemia in Isolated, Working, Erythrocyte Perfused Rat Hearts.- 50. Effect of Irradiation on Enzymes of The Capillary Bed in Rat Ventricles.- CRITICAL pO2.- 51. The Redox State of Cytochrome Oxydase in BrainIn VIVO: an Historical Perspective.- 52. a Quantitative Study of Oxygen as a Metabolic Regulator.- 53. The Oxygen Dependency of Cerebral Oxidative Metabolism in The Newborn Piglet Studied with 31f Nmrs and Nirs.- 54. Effect of Myoglobin Inactivation on Intracellular Gradients of Nadh Fluorescence At Critical Mitochondrial Oxygen Supply.- 55. Effects of Anesthesia on Cerebral Tissue Oxygen Tension: Use of Epr Oximetry to Make Repeated Measurements.- Oxygen Related Gene Activation.- 56. Capillarization and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in Hypertrophying Anterior Latissimus Dorsi Muscle of The Japanese Quail..- 57. Expression of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen in Rat Hearts Subjected to Transient Ischemia Followed by Reperfusion.- 58. Fibroblast Growth Factors (fgfs) Increase Breast Tumor Growth Rate, Metastases, Blood Flow, and Oxygenation Without Significant Change in Vascular Density.- 59. Mechanisms of Fgf1 and Vegf Mediated Angiogenesis Kht Tumor Bearing Mice.- 60. Hif-l? and Vegf Expression After Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia.- 61. Relationship Between The Gene Expression of C-fos and Degree of Hypoxia in Rat Brain, as Revealed by Near-infrared Spectroscopy.- Oxygen Metabolism and Pathophysiology.- 62. Blood Volume Changes Are Controlled Centrally Not Locally - a Near-infrared Spectroscopy Study of One-legged Aerobic Exercise.- 63. a Modeling Investigation to The Possible Role of Myoglobin in Human Muscle in Near Infrared Spectroscopy (nirs) Measurements.- 64. Tissue Hypoxia During Bacterial Sepsis Is Attenuated by Pr-39, an Antibacterial Peptide.- 65. Effects of The Contrast Medium Iopromide on Renal Hemodynamics and Oxygen Tension in The Diabetic Rat Kidney.- 66. Postocclusive Reactive Hyperemia in Healthy Volunteers and Patients with Peripheral Vascular Disease Measured by Three Noninvasive Methods.- 67. Role of Myoglobin in Regulating Respiration.- 68.Oxidative Defenses in The Sea Bass, Dicentrarchuslabrax.- 69. Rheologic Dissimilarities in Female and Male Blood: Potential Link to Development of Cardiovascular Diseases.- 70. Preliminary Studies of The Application of Near Infrared Spectroscopy in The Diagnosis of Deep Vein Thrombosis.- 71. Cerebrovascular Response to Acute Metabolic Acidosis in Humans.- 72. Free Flap Monitoring in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.- 73. Inhibition of Mitochondrial Respiration During Early Stage Sepsis.- Author Index.