The physiological and pathological significance of the kallikrein-kinin system was recently explored extensively, resulting in a rapid accumulation of information regarding their potential importance. This publication provides an integrated picture of the latest information on the kallikrein kinin system. It contains contributions from morphologists, geneticists, biochemists, pharmacologists, physiologists, and clinicians. The Fifth International Kinin Congress (Nov. 29-Dec. 3, 1987) provided a forum for the exchange of information and ideas on the kallikrein-kinin system. The participation of more than 350 scientists from 23 countries reflects the widespread interest and international scope of research activity in the physiological and pathological functions of the kallikrein-kinin system. A total of 275 papers including posters were presented, attesting to the unquestioned success of this Congress. These proceedings, in two volumes, contain the collective studies presented, studies of high scientific standard that provoked stimulating and fruitful discussions. Also included in these volumes are the two plenary lectures presented by Dr. H.A. Margolius (USA) and Dr. S. Nakanishi (Japan). During the last decade our knowledge of the role of the kallikrein kinin system in health and disease has been greatly advanced by the develop ment of antagonists to bradykinin and the introduction to clinical practice of converting enzyme inhibitors. Symposia on converting enzyme and on recent advances in research on the kallikrein-kinin system are included in the proceedings.
— Part B.- Kallikrein and Other Protease Inhibitors.- Human Kallistatin, a New Tissue Kallikrein-Binding Protein: Purification and Characterization.- The Design of Specific Inhibitors of Tissue Kallikrein and Their Effect on the Blood Pressure of the Rat.- Semisynthetic Arginine-15-Aprotinin, an Improved Inhibitor for Human Plasma Kallikrein.- In Vivo Inhibition of Tissue Kallikreins by Kininogen Sequence Analogue Peptides.- Highly Selective Synthetic Inhibitors with Regard to Plasma-Kallikrein Activities.- Aprotinin Concentrations Effective for the Inhibition of Tissue Kallikrein and Plasma Kallikrein in Vitro and in Vivo.- Changes in the Kallikrein-Kinin-System after Different Dose Regimen of Aprotinin During Cardiopulmonary Bypass Operation.- Central Effect of Aprotinin, A Serine Protease Inhibitor, on Blood Pressure in Spontaneously Hypertensive and Wistar-Kyoto Rats.- Augmentation of Kallikrein and Plasmin Inhibition Capacity by Aprotinin Using a New Assay to Monitor Therapy.- Studies on the Inhibition of Plasma Kallikrein, Cl-Esterase and ?-FXIIa in the Presence and the Absence of Heparins.- The Major Plasma Kallikrein Inhibitor in Guinea Pig Plasma with Contrapsin-like Nature.- Comparative Studies on Fast Acting PA-Inhibitors from Pig and Human Peripheral Leucocytes.- In Vivo Function of $$\bar Cl$$-Inhibitor and Pathophysiology of Edema Attack in Patients with Hereditary Angioneurotic Edema.- T-Kinin and T-Kininogen.- Effect of Thyroidectomy on Rat Plasma T-Kininogen Concentration as Demonstrated by a New and Direct T-Kininogen Radioimmunoassay.- The Peculiar T-Kininase Activity of Rat Mast Cell Chymase.- Kinin Formation From T-Kininogen by Spleen Acid Kininogenases.- A Novel Kinin, Met-Ile-Ser-Bradykinin(Met-T-Kinin) is Released from T-Kininogen by an Acid Proteinase of Granulomatous Tissues in Rats.- T. Kinin in Human Ovarian Carcinoma Ascites.- Hypertension and Kallikrein-Kinin.- Plasma Kinin Levels in Experimental Hypertension in Rats.- Role of Renal Kallikrein in the Regulation of Blood Pressure in the Rat Remnant Kidney Model of Chronic Renal Failure.- The Renal Kallikrein-Kinin System in Renoparenchymal Hypertension.- Effect of Oral Potassium Load on Urinary Kallikrein Excretion in Essential Hypertension.- The Effects of Aging on Urinary Kallikreins and Other Vasoactive Substances in Essential Hypertension.- Renal Kininases in Primary Aldosteronism.- Tissue Kininogenases.- Purification and Immunological Properties of Human Urinary Kallikrein and Prokallikrein.- Characterization of N-Linked Oligosaccharides of Human Urinary Kallikrein Molecules.- Rat Submandibular Gland Kallikreins A and B: Isolation, Purification, and Properties.- Human Salivary Kallikrein and Submaxillary Glands Kallikreins.- Characterization of Human Pancreatic Kallikrein.- Immunocytochemical Identification of Glandular Kallikrein In the Rat Anterior Pituitary.- Localization of Kallikrein in Human Male Genital Organ.- Isolation and Partial Characterization of Rabbit Urinary Kallikrein.- Tissue Kallikreins of the Guinea-Pig.- Presence of Immunoreactive Tissue Kallikrein in Human Polymorphonuclear (PMN) Leucocytes.- Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Human Tissue Kallikrein and Analysis of Immunoreactive Kallikrein in the Plasma by Them.- Glandular Kallikrein-Like Enzyme in Adrenal Glands.- Plasma Kallikrein-Kinin and Related Systems.- Further Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Against Rat Plasma Kallikrein, Rat Low Molecular Weight Kininogen and Synthetic Bradykinin.- An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for Kinins in Tryptic Digests.- Hydrolysis of Synthetic Peptides and Natural Substrates by Plasma Kallikrein and its Light Chain.- Purification of Factor XII from Porcine Plasma and its Activation by Porcine Plasma Kallikrein.- Study on the In Vitro Assay Method for Evaluating the Inhibitory Effect of Various Substances on the Production of Plasma Kallikrein.- A New Analytical System for the Proteases and Antiproteases Assessment.- Inhibitors.- cDNA Cloning of Kininase 1.- Cysteine Protease Inhibitors with S-(3-Nitro-2-Pyridinesulfenyl)- Cysteine Residue in Affinity Analogs of Peptide Substrates.- Studies on New Synthetic Inhibitors of Kallikreins and Chymotrypsin.- Inhibition of Human and Rat Tissue Kallikreins by Peptide Analog Antagonists of Bradykinin.- Kininogens, Kinins, and Related Substances.- Changes of T-Kininogen Levels in Plasma and Liver During Development of Rats.- Leukocyte-Induced Regulation of Hepatic Production of T-Kininogen.- Identification of Thiol-Activated T-Kininogenases in the Rat and Mouse Submandibular Glands.- Sex Dimorphism and Estrogen Regulation of Kininogens in Rat Serum, Adrenal Gland, and Kidney.- Monoclonal Antibodies Against the Complex Between HMW Kininogen and Calpain I.- Kinin-Containing Kininogen is Present in Human Seminal Plasma.- Studies of the Cleavage of Human High Molecular Weight Kininogen by Purified Plasma and Tissue Kallikreins, and Upon Contact Activation of Plasma.- Radioimmunoassay of Kinins and its Application to Purification of Kininogens.- Measurement of Des-Phe8-Arg9-Bradykinin by Enzyme-Immuno-Assay — A Useful Parameter of Plasma Kinin Release.- Characterization of an Sh-Proteinase Inhibitor from Bothrops Jararaca Plasma.- Kininases.- A Sensitive Method for Differential Determination of Kininase I, II, and Neutral Endopeptidase (NEP) in Human Urine.- Localization of Neutral Endopeptidase in the Kidney Determined by the Stop-Flow Method.- Metabolism of Bradykinin by Multiple Coexisting Membrane-Bound Peptidases in Lung: Techniques for Investigating the Role of Each Peptidase Using Specific Inhibitors.- Purification of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme from Human Intestine.- Involvement of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (KININASE II) in Neuropeptide Metabolism.- Distribution of Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme in Male Reproductive Systems of Various Vertebrates and Properties of the Genital Enzymes.- A New Type of Ultrasensitive Bioluminescence Enzyme Substrates for Kininases.- Kinin Receptors and Antagonists.- The Hypotensive Response to Des-Arg9-Bradykinin Increases During E. Coli Septicemia in the Pig.- Development of bradykinin Antagonists: Structure-Activity Relationships for New Categories of Antagonist Sequences.- Tissue Selectivity of Novel Specific and Competitive Antagonists of Neurokinin B on Isolated Smooth Muscles.- Competitive Antagonists of Bradykinin: In Vitro (Jugular Vein) and In Vivo (Blood Pressure Response) Studies.- Kinin Receptors in Smooth Muscle and Vascular Effects in Sodium Depleted Rats.- Effect of the Substance(s) Released In Vitro by the Interaction of BOTHROPS JARARACA (BJ) Venom or Trypsin and BJ Plasma on BJ Blood Pressure and Uterus.- Kallikrein-Kinin in Health and Diseases.- Long-Term Effects of Aldosterone on Kallikrein and Sodium in Rats.- Activation of Inactive Kallikrein in the Rat Kidney During Low Sodium Intake.- Urinary Kallikrein Excretion in Neurogenic Hypertension in the Dogs: Possible Relationship Between Kallikrein Excretion and Catecholamines.- Glandular Kallikrein, Renin and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme of Diabetic and Hypertensive Rats.- Role of Renal Kallikrein in the Increased Fractional Sodium Excretion in the Rat Remnant Kidney Model of Chronic Renal Failure.- Aldosterone, Kallikrein, Kininase I and II in Normal and Hypertension Complicated Pregnancy.- Kinin-Kininase System in Drug Addict Woman in Pregnancy and Puerperium.- Kallikrein-Kinin System in Newborns of the Drug Addicted.- Physiologic Role of the Peripheral Enkephalinergic System in Regulating Cardiovascular Homeostasis: Evidence of Interactions with the Renin-Angiotensin and Kallikrein-Kinin Systems.- Utilization of Kininase Activities as Indicators of Malignant Disease.- Role of Endogenous Vasodilator Prostaglandins in the Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.- Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, Captopril and Enalaprilat, Augment Bradykinin-Induced Prostacyclin Synthesis in Cultured Rat Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.- Renal Function as Affected by Inhibitors of Kininase II and of Neutral Endopeptidase 24.11 in Rats with and without Desoxycorticosterone Pretreatment.- PGE2 Synthesis in Cultured Renal Papillary Collecting Tubule Cells from Young and Aged Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.- Factor XII Levels in Patients after Abdominal Surgery.- Mechanism of Activation of the Kallikrein-Kinin System in Plasma of Patients with Atopic Allergic Diseases.- Localization of Glandular Kallikrein in Nasal Mucosa of Allergic and Nonallergic Individuals.- Participation of Substance P in Inflammatory Responses.- Interaction of Endogenous Kinins and Prostaglandins in the Plasma Exudation of Kaolin-Induced Pleurisy in Rats.- Role of Bradykinin Generating and Degrading Systems in the Vascular Permeability Response Induced with Kaolin in Rats.- Endotoxin Shock, Kinin System, and PAF-acether in the Rat.- Estimation of Plasma Kallikrein in Sickle-Cell Anemia, and its Relation to the Coagulation and Fibrinolytic Systems.- Studies on Coagulation-Fibrinolysis and Kallikrein-Kinin Systems and Kininase Activity and Kininase II Quantity in Amniotic Fluid.- Studies on Urinary Coagulation-Fibrinolysis and Kallikrein-Kinin Systems and Kininase in Normal Pregnancy, Labor and Puerpreium.- Elastase Release in Plasma with Increased Cl-Inhibition Capacity During Recirculation of Blood.- Changes in Complement Components After Intravascular Application of Contrast Media.- Plasma Kallikrein Clearance by the Liver of Normal and Injured Rats.- Studies on the Mechanism of the Sedational State; “Tranquilization” Evoked by Bradykinin or Kallikrein in Rats.- Does Kallikrein Improve the Brain Function in Dementia?.- Circulatory Effect of Kallikrein; with Special Reference to Cerebral Circulation.- Serial Measurement of Bradykinin and Fibrinopeptide A of Cerebrospinal Fluid and Plasma in Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.- Effects of the Kallikrein-Kinin System on Phasic Coronary Vasospasm in Dogs.- The Role of Bradykinin on the Effect of Plasma Kallikrein on Platelet Aggregation.- Activation of Calcium Ion-Dependent Proteinases by Bradykinin in Dental Pulp of the Rat.- Enhancement of Proteinase Activities by Bradykinin in Adrenal Medulla of the Rat.- Trypsine-Like Esteroproteases, Kinin, and Kininases in Submandibular Gland, Colon, and Pulmonary Lavage Fluid of Mouse Model for Human Cystic Fibrosis (CF).- Role of the Kallikrein-Kinin System in Human Pancreatitis.- Studies of Sweat Kallikrein in Normal Human Subjects.- Significance of Tissue Kallikrein in Chronic Atrophic Gastritis.- Studies on the Intestinal Absorption of Tissue Kallikrein.- The Effects of Diabetes and Insulin on Colonic Tissue Kallikrein.- The Effects of Human Kallikrein and Aprotinin on Nonmalignant and Malignant Cell Growth.