This volume contains the proceedings of the Tenth International Meeting of the International Study Group for Tryptophan Research (ISTR V), held at the University of Padova, Padova, Italy, from 25-29 June, 2002 under the auspices of the Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) in Roma, the University of Padova, the Italian Chemical Society - Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, the Veneto Region and the City of Padova. The meeting was organized to cover the recent developments in the field of tryptophan research. Weare very honoured that so many speakers accepted our invitation to give plenary lectures which, with the other communications, demonstrated the high scientific value of the Meeting. The publications in this volume are subdivided into nine main chapters, and cover all the major aspects in immunology, neurobiology, psychiatry, pathology, clinics, metabolism, enzymology, pharmacology, toxicology, melatonin, exercise and analytical chemistry. The volume includes the contributions of 325 scientists from 24 countries, and the Musajo Memorial Lecture delivered by Prof. Osamu Hayaishi during the Opening Ceremony.
Metabolism to function - an odyssey with tryptophan.- Role of IDO activation in anti-microbial defense in human native astrocytes.- Tryptophan catabolism and T cell response.- Quinolinic acid up-regulates chemokine production and chemokine receptor expression in astrocytes.- Tryptophan catabolism in nonobese diabetic mice.- Macrophage activating properties of the tryptophan catabolite picolinic acid.- Regulation of IDO-mediated bacteriostasis in macrophages: role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory agents.- Tryptophan degradation during and after gestation.- Increased mRNA expression of kynurenine pathway enzymes in human placentae exposed to bacterial endotoxin.- Expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in carcinoma of human endometrium and uterine cervix.- The mechanism of interferon-y induced anti Toxoplasma gondii by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and/or inducible nitric oxide synthase vary among tissues.- Expression of the kynurenine pathway enzymes in human microglia and macrophages.- IDO (indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase) expression and function in the CNS.- Neurokynurenines (NEKY) as common neurochemical links of stress and anxiety.- Studies on the neuroprotective action of kynurenine mono-oxygenase inhibitors in post-ischemic brain damage.- 3-Hydroxykynurenine and quinolinate: Pathogenic synergism in early grade Huntington’s disease?.- Accumulation of quinolinic acid with neuroinflammation: Does it mean excitotoxicity?.- Kynurenic acid and schizophrenia.- Quinolinic acid in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease.- Kynurenine metabolism in central nervous system in experimental chronic renal failure.- T cell apoptosis by kynurenines.- Neurokynurenines — seizures or/and anxiety in children with epilepsy?.- Enzymatic depletion of serotonin in vivo and its consequences.- Tryptophan Modulation and Cognition.- Ttptophan, serotonin and human social behavior.- Role of brain tryptophan and serotonin in secondary anorexia.- Plasma leptin, insulin and free tryptophan contribute to cytokine-induced anorexia.- Recent advances in physiological and pathological significance of tryptophan-NAD’ metabolites: Roles of poly(ADP-ribose) and cyclic ADP-ribose in insulin secretion and diabetogenesis.- The endogenous formation of highly chlorinated tetrahydro-?-carbolines as a possible causative mechanism in idiopathic Parkinson ‘s disease.- Experimental evaluation of an altered tryptophan metabolism in fibromyalgia.- Age-related nuclear cataract and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-initiated tryptophan metabolism in the human lens.- Kynurenine and neopterin levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis during drug treatment.- Induction of cytochrome P450 IAl and 1B1 by photooxidized tryptophan in transformed human keratinocytes.- Prognostic value of tryptophan load test followed by serum kynurenine determination. It’s comparison with pyridoxal-5-phosphate, kynurenine, homocysteine and neopterin amounts.- Effective antiretroviral therapy reduces degradation of tryptophan in patients with HIV-1 infection.- A clinicobiochemical study of tryptophan and other plasma and urinary amino acids in the family with Hartnup disease.- The influence of L-tryptophan peroral load on glomerular filtration rate in chronic glomerulonephritis and chronic renal failure.- Neuropeptide-containing cells in the cortex and striatum of mice with cerebral malaria.- Tiptophan and quality of life in colorectal cancer..- Effects of chronic lung inflammation on tryptophan metabolism in piglets.- Tumor-induced changes in host metabolism: a possible role for free tryptophan as a marker of neoplastic disease.- Kynurenine and neopterin in the aqueous humor of the anterior chamber of the eye and in serum of cataract patients.- Mechanism of inhibitory effect of 3-hydroxykynurenine on erythropoiesis in patients with renal insufficiency.- The kynurenine pathway enzymes in healthy and hyperlipidemic rabbits.- Metabolism of tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway in alloxan diabetic rabbits.- Levels of purine, kynurenine and lipid peroxidation products in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.- Upregulation of cytochrome P450 IA2 in chronic renal failure: does oxidized tryptophan play a role?.- Kidney and liver kynurenine pathway enzymes in chronic renal failure.- Cerebral cholinergic neurotrasmission in protein and tryptophan-restricted adult rats.- Tryptophan pyrrole ring cleavage enzymes in placenta.- Increase in conversion of tryptophan to niacin in pregnant rats.- Identification and expression of a cDNA encoding human 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate-6-semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD): A key enzyme for the tryptophan-niacine pathway and quinolinate hypothesis.- Kynurenine pathway enzymes in different species of animals.- Kynurenine pathway enzymes in guinea pigs.- Tryptophan metabolism in rabbits.- Tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine pathway in rats.- Enzyme activities along the kynurenine pathway in mice.- Tryptophan metabolism via transamination. In vitro amino-transferase assay using dinitrophenylhydrazine method.- Exercise, fatigue, neurotransmission and the influence of the neuroendocrine axis.- The effect of tryptophan deficiency in the brain on rat fatigue levels: a rat model of fatigue reduction.- Tryptophan metabolism was accelerated by exercise in rat.- Melatonin: detoxification of oxygen and nitrogen-based toxic reactants.- Mitochondrial regulation by melatonin and its metabolites.- Therapeutic effect of melatonin on cholestatic liver injury in rats with bile duct ligation.- Antioxidant and cytoprotective activity of indole derivatives related to melatonin..- Strategies leading to MT, selective melatonin receptor antagonists.- Potassium hexacyanoferrate (111)-mediated fluorometric determination of melatonin.- Melatonin in plants.- The enol tautomer of indole-3-pyruvic acid as a biological switch in stress responses.- Recent developments in marine indole alkaloid synthesis.- Modulation of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism in search for neuroprotective agents. Focus on kynurenine- 3-hydroxylase.- Tryptophan-derived sulfur-containing phytoalexins — A general overview.- Towards enantioselective synthesis of tryptophan-derived alkaloids.- Novel bisindole derivatives of catharanthus alkaloids with potential cytotoxic properties.- Antiproliferative effect of indigoid pigments isolated from human urine.- NAD levels in the rat primary cultured hepatocytes affected by peroxisomeproliferators.- The effects of phthalate esters on the tryptophan-niacin metabolism.- 5-HT receptors mediating contraction in the rat-tail artery.- Dietary linoleic acid suppresses gene expression of rat liver a-amino-ß-carboxymuconate-e-semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD) and increases quinolinic acid in serum.- Suitability of trypthophan radiation products as markers for the detection of y-irradiated protein-rich food.- Photochemical properties of kynurenine pathway metabolites and indoleamines.- HPLC of tryptophan and its metabolites: as OPA derivatives and on the basis of their UV and fluorescence spectra, simultaneously.- ECNI GC-MS analysis of picolinic and quinolinic acids and their amides in human plasma, CSF and brain tissue.- Drosophila mutants of the kynurenine pathway as a model for ageing studies.- Involvement of 5-hydroxytryptophan in melanogenesis.- Interaction of 7-azatryptophan and ß(1-azulenyl)-alanine with a nitroxyl radical.- HPLC profiling of Trp-related metabolites in humans.- 6-Nitrotryptophan: a specific reaction product of tryptophan residue in human Cu, Zn-SOD treated with peroxynitrite.- Bioadhesive topical application of tryptophan derivatives.- Serum tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptophan at birth and during post-partum days.- Closing Remarks.- Author Index.