This volume is not intended as review of the large literature on tumor antigenicity and efforts at tumor immunotherapy. Its pur pose, rather, is to present discursively an outline of the likely approaches to immunological intervention in neoplastic diseases which present themselves today, in light ofthe probable antigenic properties of cancer cells. References are cited only selectively, in illustration of some of the major considerations to which allusion is made and of some of the supportive evidence. No attempt is made at inclusiveness in the citation of concepts and fmdings. If undue emphasis appears to be given to some aspects of the litera ture and only sparse documentation to others, the grounds do not lie necessarily with a critical estimation of the extent or quality of reported work, but rather with the bias of the writer who consi ders stress on some facets of the field more appropriate than on others for elaboration of his arguments. The references brought in support of a given point are often intentionally varied,including both reports of original work and reviews, very recent observa tions and contributions that gave initial impetus to investigations, in an attempt to exemplify the pertinent literature; and reference is made both to data presented and to concepts advanced.
1 Tumor-Associated Antigenicity and Host Responsiveness: Basic Questions and Considerations.- 2 Tumor Etiology and Antigenicity.- 2.1 Tumors Known to be Induced by Viruses.- 2.2 Tumors Known to be Induced by Chemical Agents and by Other Carcinogenic Stimuli.- 2.3 “Spontaneous” Tumors, with No Obvious Viral Etiology (Animal und Human).- 3 Approaches to Immunotherapy.- 3.1 Active “Nonspecific Immunogherapy” with Immunomodulating Agents.- 3.1.1 Loci of Immunomodulator Influence on Antitumor Immune Responses.- 22.214.171.124 Nonspecific Potentiation of Specific Responsiveness to Tumor associated Antigens.- 126.96.36.199 Nonspecific “Spillover” of Potentiated Specific Responsiveness to TAAs.- 188.8.131.52 Nonspecific Potentiation of Specific Immunological Reactions Against Antigens Other than TAAs.- 184.108.40.206 Antigenic Cross-reactivity Between Microbial Immunomodulators and Tumor Cells.- 220.127.116.11 Direct Nonspecific Activation of Immunocytes and Its Nonspecific Consequences.- 18.104.22.168 Nonimmunological Loci of Action of Substances with Immunomodulator Properties.- 22.214.171.124 General Comments.- 3.1.2 Nonliving Immunomodulators of Microbial Origin.- 3.1.3 Intralesional and Regional Versus Distal Immunotherapeutic Administration of Immunomodulators.- 3.1.4 Combined Modalities of Treatment Including Intervention with Nonspecific Immunomodulators.- 3.1.5 Possible Advantages Inherent in the Nonspecific Approach to Tumor Immunotherapy.- 3.2 Active Specific Immunization with Tumor Cell Antigens.- 3.2.1 General Considerations.- 3.2.2 Modification of Tumor Cell Antigens.- 3.2.3 Other Possible Means of Specific Immunization.- 3.3 Passive and Adoptive Immunological Intervention.- 3.3.1 General Considerations.- 3.3.2 In Vitro Generation of Cytotoxic Effector Cells Against Tumors.- 3.3.3 Potentiation of the In Vitro Generation of Cytotoxic Effector Cells.- 3.3.4 In Vitro Production of Antibodies and Its Potentiation.- 3.3.5 Possibilities and Problems of Clinical Application.- 4 Concluding Remarks.- 4.1 Immune Surveillance and Immunological Intervention: Hypothesis and Empiricism.- 4.2 Key Aspects of the Approaches to Tumor Immunotherapy.- 4.3 Goals and Expectations.- 4.4 Experimental Perspectives.- 4.5 Immunological Capacity, Immunological Monitoring, and Susceptibility to Neoplastic Disease.- 4.6 Immunological and Nonimmunological Resistance to Progressive Neoplasia.- 4.7 Coda.- 5 Notes added in Press.- Acknowledgements.- References.