It has been known for a number of years that not only pathogenicity islands but also plasmids and bacteriophages are able to carry genes whose products are involved in pathogenic processes. Accordingly, such elements and their products play an important role in pathogenesis due to the intestinal E. coli as well to Shigellae. Another interesting aspect which is reflected in different articles is that genomes evolve by acquisition of new pieces of DNA following gene transfer, but also by genome reduction. Different mechanisms include the deletion of sequences or the elimination of functions by the accumulation of point mutations or rearrangements.
Helicobacter pylori: Impact of gene transfer and the role of the cag pathogenicity islands for host adaptation and virulence.-The genus Neisseria: population structure, genome plasticity, and evolution of pathogenicity.-Genomic islands of Dichelobacter nodosus.-Phages and other mobile virulence elements in gram-positive pathogens.-Genome structure and evolution of the Bacillus cereus group.-Pathogenicity islands and virulence plasmids of bacterial plant pathogens.- Genome structure of pathogenic fungi.- Impact of integrons and transposons on the evolution of resistance and virulence.-Subject index