The chicken is a useful model for research into the basic features of immunology because its immune system functions in a way similar to that of human beings and because the chicken embryo is easily accessed experimentally. This book is a collection of comprehen sive articles updating chicken embryogenesis and immunology. It is now clear that it is possible to produce transgenic chickens by embryonic stem cell manipulation and transfer into the oocyte. Alternatively, the chick offers us the possibility of producing somatic chimeras by manipulating embryonic cells at the primitive streak or earlier stages. Working with later em bryos, we can learn the principles involved in the positioning of organ anlagen such as the limb bud. It is shown in this book that these structures are formed by appropriate cell and tissue arrangements driven by molecular factors. Work on the chicken has contributed substantially to our understanding of basic immunology, including the graft-vs. -host reaction, the clonal reactivity of immunocompetent cells, sepa ration of the T and B cell lineages, somatic diversification of the B cell repertoire by immunoglobulin (Ig) class switching, anti body diversification, Ig gene conversion, and the origin of the hematopoietic stem cell precursor of lymphoid and myeloid cells. Hematopoietic stem cells emerge successively from sev eral embryonic sites such as the yolk sac, the aorta, and the mesentery near the aorta.
List of Contents.- Why I Think the Chicken Should Survive in Immunology and Developmental Biology.- Postrearrangement Diversification Processes in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissues.- Current Concepts in Chicken B Cell Development.- Evidence for Phenotypic Heterogeneity Among B Cells Emigrating from the Bursa of Fabricius: A Reflection of Functional Diversity?.- T Cell Receptors and T Cell Development.- Chicken ?? T Cells.- T Cell Subsets and the Activation of ?? T Cells.- T Cell Migration During Ontogeny and T Cell Repertoire Generation.- The Avian Model in the Study of Tolerance to Self.- Avian Natural Killer Cells.- Ontogeny of Hematopoiesis in the Avian Embryo: A General Paradigm.- Chicken MHC Molecules, Disease Resistance and the Evolutionary Origin of Birds.- Acute Avian Leukemia Viruses as Tools to Study Hematopoietic Cell Differentiation.- Control of the Differentiation Commitment by Nuclear Hormone Receptors in Chicken Erythrocytic Progenitor Cells.- Cell Cycle Regulation and Erythroid Differentiation...- Chick Stem Cells.- Modulations of Cellular Interactions During Development of the Neural Crest: Role of Growth Factors and Adhesion Molecules.- Establishment of Pathways in the Developing Neural System.- Limb Development.