Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) emerged in the 1990s in Australia and Malaysia, respectively, as zoonotic agents that caused fatal outbreaks of respiratory and/or encephalitic illness among horses (HeV), pigs (NiV) and humans who came in contact with the infected animals. The natural reservoir for henipavirus appears to be bat species found in South-east Asia and Australia, and direct bat-to-human and human-to-human transmissions is likely responsible for annual NiV outbreaks in Bangladesh since 2000. Annual spillover events of HeV have occurred in Australia since 2006 with fatal consequences for horses and humans. HeV and NiV cause zoonotic diseases that have resulted in major socio-economic disruptions during outbreaks and spillover events. In the last decade, much progress has been made in understanding the ecology, virology and disease pathogenesis of henipaviruses. This volume brings together a leading group of international researchers to provide up to date reviews on a holistic set of topics (Epidemiology & Ecology, Molecular Virology, Human & Animal Pathology, Diagnosis and Control) that will impact positively on the eventual control, prevention, and treatment of these zoonotic infections.
Henipaviruses form a new genus of emerging paramyxoviruses that are the deadliest human pathogens within the Paramyxoviridae family. This volume deals with the many facets of henipavirus biology, and covers our current understanding regarding the ecology, molecular virology, and pathogenesis of henipavirus infections. It is an international effort written by a multidisciplinary panel of experts at the front lines of research into this lethal emerging group of paramyxoviruses. The first section introduces the epidemiology and ecology of Nipah and Hendra viruses in their respective endemic areas, including a first-hand account of the discovery of Nipah virus during its initial outbreak in Malaysia; the next section documents the molecular virology of henipaviruses, and the substantial advances made towards understanding the unique features of henipavirus entry and tropism; and this is followed by accounts of the clinical and pathologic features of henipavirus infections in their human and naturally infected animal hosts. The next sections on pathogenesis provide a comprehensive reference on how henipaviruses counteract the innate immune system, and the relevant pathogenic features in animal challenge models developed to test potential therapeutic strategies. The final sections describe our current and future capabilities for diagnosis and control, including an account of potentially effective immunization strategies that are currently being tested.
This book will not only serve as a useful reference for the henipavirus field; it will be useful to basic and animal virologists, ecologists, epidemiologists, physicians, and others interested in emerging infectious viral diseases, as it showcases the multidisciplinary efforts required to understand the genesis, spread and hopefully, control, of a group of lethal emerging zoonotic pathogens.
- Introduction: Nipah virus : discovery and Origin.- Ecological aspects of Hendra virus.- Epidemiology of Henipavirus disease in humans.- Molecular Virology of the Henipaviruses.- Henipavirus receptor usage and tropism.- Henipavirus membrane fusion and viral entry.- Clinical and pathological manufestations of human Henipavirus infection.- Henipaviruses in their natural animal hosts.- Nipah and Hendra virus interactions with the innate immune system.- Animal challenge models of Henipavirus infection and pathogenesis.- Diagnosis of Henipavirus infection: current capabilities and future directions.- immunization strategies against Henipaviruses.- Subject Index