To lose is human, to win is fortune, but to try is our destiny. EARL C. SUITOR, JR. The idea of a Symposium on "Arthropod Cell Cultures" started in July of 1969 shortly after the untimely death of our colleague, EARL C. SUITOR, JR. , at the age of 38. At first we thought an afternoon or evening session would be sufficient, but we were soon convinced that the scope of the Symposium should be greatly enlarged. Interest in this topic was increasing at an astonishing rate. Since EARL SUITOR had made a distinct imprint in this new field, many scientists who knew him well or just casually wished to honor him in this manner. EARL SUITOR was born and raised in New England and received a B. S. degree in bacteriology from the University of Massachusetts in 1952. As a spirited young man, he enlisted in the U. S. Navy to see the world. Instead, he was assigned for most of his four-year "hitch" to the Naval Medical Research Institute. I met him there in 1954, an enthusiastic and imaginative young fellow with many interests, an avid reader of the classics, an occasional writer of poetry, who blended his interest in scientific literature with that of Science Fiction. In 1956, EARL left the Navy to attend George Washington University, where he earned an M. S. degree in 1958 and a Ph. D. degree in 1963.
1 The Culture of Cells from Insects and Ticks.- I. Cultivation of Dipteran Cells in Vitro.- A. Introduction.- B. Established Dipteran Cell Lines.- C. Primary Cultures from Three Additional Dipteran Species.- 1. Culex tritaeniorhynchus, C. salinarius.- 2. Glossina morsitans.- D. General Discussion.- 1. Origin of Cells in Culture.- 2. Culture Media and Cell Nutrition.- II. Culture of Cells of the Flesh Fly, Sarcophaga bullata.- A. Introduction.- B. Materials and Methods.- C. Results.- D. Discussion.- III. Establishment and Characterization of Two New Cell Lines (CP-1268 and CP-169) from the Codling Moth, Carpocapsa pomonella (with a Review of Culture of Cells and Tissues from Lepidoptera).- A. Introduction.- B. Materials and Methods.- C. Results and Discussion.- 1. Growth of the Primary Culture.- 2. Morphology.- 3. Growth Characteristics.- 4. Chromosome Analysis.- IV. A Cell Line Isolated from Hemocytes of Samia cynthia Pupae.- A. Introduction.- B. Materials and Methods.- C. Results.- D. Discussion and Conclusions.- V. Present Status of Tick Tissue Culture.- 2 Analysis of Cells from Established Insect Cell Lines.- I. Introduction.- II. Morphological and Cultural Characteristics of Culiseta inornata and Aedes vexans Mosquito Cell Lines.- III. Antigenic Relationships of Mosquito Cell Lines as Determined by Immunodiffusion Techniques.- IV. Characterization and Identification of Insect Cell Cultures.- A. Introduction.- B. Materials and Methods.- Insect Tissue Cultures.- Frozen Storage of Cells.- Preparation of Antisera.- Isoenzyme Techniques.- Sterility Tests.- C. Results.- Microbial Sterility Studies.- Frozen Storage of Cells.- Agar Gel Immunodiffusion.- Isoenzyme Analysis.- D. Discussion.- V. Cytogenetic Studies on Cells in Culture from the Class Insecta.- A. Materials and Methods.- B. Results.- 3 Physiology of Cultivated Arthropod Cells.- I. Introduction.- II. Drosophila Neuron Differentiation in Vitro.- A. Introduction.- B. Observations on Living Cells.- C. Observations on Fixed Material.- D. Conclusions.- III. Cultivation of Insect Endocrine Glands in Vitro.- A. Introduction.- B. Methods.- C. Results.- 1. Prothoracic Glands.- 2. Corpus Allatum-Cardiacum Complex.- 3. Brain-Corpus Cardiacum Complex.- D. Discussion.- IV. Production of Human-Mosquito Somatic Cell Hybrids and their Response to Virus Infection.- A. Introduction.- B. The Production of Interphylum Hybrids: Cultural Morphology and Evidence of Hybrid Production.- C. Virus Infection of Interphylum Hybrids.- V. The Uptake of Free and Serum-Bound Sterols by Insect Cells in Vitro.- A. Introduction.- B. Sterol Uptake by Insect Cells.- 1. Sterol Content of the Medium.- 2. Uptake of Serum Sterols by Insect Cells.- 3. Uptake of 4?14C-Labeled Cholesterol.- C. Discussion.- VI. Comparative Lipid Analysis of Aedes aegypti and Monkey Kidney Cells (MK-2) Cultivated in Vitro.- A. Introduction.- B. Methods.- C. Results.- D. Discussion.- VII. Studies Attempting to Elucidate the in Vivo Function(s) of Grace’s Antheraea eucalypti Cell Strains.- VIII. The Effects of Insecticides on Insect Cells Grown in Vitro.- A. Introduction.- B. Materials and Methods.- C. Results.- 1. Effect of Insecticides on Insect Cells.- 2. Relative Susceptibilities of Cells and Mosquito Larvae.- D. Discussion 1ll.- 4 Arthropod Tissue Culture in the Study of Arboviruses and Rickettsiae: A Review.- A. Arbovirus Studies.- 1. Primary Arthropod Tissue and Cell Cultures.- 2. The Antheraea eucalypti Cell Line.- 3. Mosquito Cell Lines.- B. Rickettsial Studies.- C. Concluding Remarks.- 5 Propagation of Arboviruses in Singh’s Aedes Cell Lines.- I. Growth of Arboviruses in Aedes albopictus and A. aegypti Cell Lines.- A. Susceptibility of Mosquito Cell Lines to Viruses.- B. Growth of Arboviruses in Mosquito Cell Lines.- C. Cytopathic Effect.- D. Primary Isolation of Arboviruses.- E. Carrier Cultures.- II. Multiplication of Chikungunya and O’nyong-nyong Viruses in Singh’s Aedes Cell Lines.- A. Introduction.- B. Materials and Methods.- C. Results and Conclusion.- III. Growth Studies of California Encephalitis Virus in Two Aedes Mosquito Cell Line Cultures.- 6 Growth of Arboviruses in Arthropod Cell Cultures: Comparative Studies.- I. Preliminary Observations on Growth of Arboviruses in a Newly Established Line of Mosquito Cell (Culex quinquefasciatusSay).- A. Establishment and Characterization of the Cell Line.- B. Susceptibility to Infection with Arboviruses.- II. Attempts to Grow Tacaribe and Junin Viruses in Grace’s Continuous Line of Moth Cells.- William D. Hann and Robertson B. Clarke.- III. A Comparative Study of the Viral Susceptibility of Monolayer and Suspended Mosquito Cell Lines.- 7 Growth of Viruses in Arthropod Cell Cultures: Applications.- I. Attenuation of Semliki Forest (SF) Virus in Continuously Cultured Aedes aegypti Mosquito Cells (Peleg) as a Step in Production of Vaccines.- II. Cultivation of Oncogenic Viruses in Mosquito Cells in Vitro.- A. Materials and Methods.- B. Results.- III. RNA of Uninfected and Sindbis Virus-Infected Aedes albopictus Cells.- A. Properties of RNA Extracted from A. albopictus Cells.- B. Properties of Sindbis Virus-specific RNA Extracted from Infected A. albopictus Cells.- 8 Homoptera Cell Culture and Its Application to the Study of Plant Pathogens.- II. In Vitro Cultivation.- A. Early Work.- B. Primary Culture of Leaf hopper.- C. Establishment of Leaf hopper Cell Lines.- D. Growth of Leaf hopper Cells.- E. Primary Culture of Aphids and Planthoppers.- III. Application to the Study of Plant Pathogens.- A. Aster Yellow.- B. Rice Dwarf.- C. Wound Tumor.- D. Potato Yellow Dwarf.- E. Sowthistle Yellow Vein.- F. Animal and Insect Viruses in Leafhopper Cell Cultures.- 9 Lepidoptera Cell Culture and Its Application to the Study of Plant Viruses and Animal Parasites.- I. Cultivation of Gypsy Moth Hemocytes.- A. Preparation and Observation of Primary Cultures.- B. Subculturing of Cells.- C. Viral Infection of Primary Cultures.- II. Growth of a Microsporidian Parasite in Cultured Cells of Tent Caterpillars (Malacosoma).- A. Introduction.- B. Materials and Methods.- C. Results and Discussion.- III. Drosophila Cells in Vitro: Behavior and Utilization for Genetic Purpose.- A. Introduction.- B. Materials and Methods.- C. Results and Discussion.- 10 Drosophila Cell Culture and Its Application for the Study of Genetics and Virology.- I. Drosophila Cells in Vitro: Behavior and Utilization for Genetic Purpose.- A. Short Term Cultures.- B. Long Term Cultures.- C. Conclusion.- II. Established Diploid Cell Lines of Drosophila melanogaster as Potential Material for the Study of Genetics of Somatic Cells.- A. Isolation of Clones.- B. Selection of Suitable Genetic Markers.- C. Cell Fusion.- D. Somatic Pairing and Crossing Over.- E. Conclusion 22.- III. Arbovirus Multiplication in an Established Diploid Cell Line of Drosophila melanogaster.- A. Materials and Methods.- B. Experimental Results.- IV. Sigma Virus Multiplication in Drosophila Cell Lines of Different Genotypes.- A. Short Term Multiplication.- B. Long Term Infection.- C. Infection of Refractory Cell Lines of Drosophila.- D. Conclusion.- V. The SR Condition in Drosophila bifasciata: In Vivo and in Vitro Growth.- A. Methods.- B. Results and Discussion.- 11 New Opportunities in Biological Research Offered by Arthropod Cell Cultures.- I. Some Speculations on the Possible Role of Arthropods in the Evolution of Arboviruses.- II. Future Possibilities of Arthropod Cell Culture in Parasitology and in Developmental Biology.- References.- Author Index.