Neuromodulation is a rapidly evolving multidisciplinary biomedical and biotechnological field. The two volumes present the state-of-the-art in established and emerging applications for pain, spasticity, movement disorders, bladder and bowel dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, epilepsy, psychiatric illness, impairment of hearing and vision, and computational neuromodulation. Experts describe the neural networks involved and the appropriate surgical approaches, provide clinical guidelines, technical descriptions of implanted devices, proposals for refinements and personal views on future prospects of the field. The immense therapeutic potential is highlighted which arises from the close collaboration of biomedical scientists and biotechnological engineers in this area and signifies the transition from the conventional "resective" surgery to functional neuroprosthetic surgery (Vol. I) and neural networks surgery (Vol. II) which uses neuro-engineering to improve impaired neural function.
Vol. 2 describes the techniques and procedures applied by direct a) contact with the central nervous system or cranial nerves, in order to modulate the function of neural networks as in the case of motor cortext stimulation for pain or vagus nerve stimulation for epilepsy, or b) in deeply located structures inside the nervous system, in order to alter the function on specific networks as in the case of deep brain stimulation for Parkinson’s disease.
The two volumes represent the state of the art in established and emerging applications for pain, spasticity, movement disorders, bladder and bowel dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, epilepsy, psychiatric illness, impairment of hearing and vision, and computational neuromodulation
Experts describe the neural networks involved and the appropriate surgical approaches
Vol. II describes the techniques and procedures applied
An introduction to neural networks surgery, a field of neuromodulation which is based on advances in neural networks science and digitised brain imaging.- Pain.- Management of chronic severe pain: cerebral neuromodulatory and neuroablative approaches.- Extradural cortical stimulation for central pain.- Motor cortex stimulation for neuropathic pain.- Motor cortex stimulation for chronic non-malignant pain: current state and future prospects.- Stimulation of primary motor cortex for intractable deafferentation pain.- Cathodal, anodal or bifocal stimulation of the motor cortex in the management of chronic pain?.- Somatosensory cortex stimulation for deafferentation pain.- Localization of precentral gyrus in image-guided surgery for motor cortex stimulation.- Anatomical and physiological basis, clinical and surgical considerations, mechanisms underlying efficacy and future prospects of cortical stimulation for pain.- Chronic electrostimulation of the trigeminal ganglion in trigeminal neuropathy: current state and future prospects.- Neuromodulatory approaches to the treatment of trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias.- Deep brain stimulation for neuropathic pain.- Movement disorders.- Surgical considerations in movement disorders: deep brain stimulation, ablation and transplantation.- Deep brain stimulation and chemical neuromodulation: current use and perspectives for the future.- GDNF delivery for Parkinson’s disease.- Neuronal networks of the basal ganglia and the value of recording field potentials from them.- Technical aspects and considerations of deep brain stimulation surgery for movement disorders.- Deep brain stimulation for Parkinson’s disease.- Neuromodulation of prelemniscal radiations in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.- Deep brain stimulation for torsion dystonia.- Deep brain stimulation for treatment of cervical dystonia.- Subthalamic nucleus stimulation for primary dystonia and tardive dystonia.- DBS in Tourette syndrome: rationale, current status and future prospects.- Extradural cortical stimulation for movement disorders.- Motor cortex stimulation for Parkinson’s disease.- Stereotactic stimulation of the anterior lobe of the cerebellum in cerebral palsy from a suboccipital approach.- Epilepsy.- Electrical stimulation devices in the treatment of epilepsy.- Brain stimulation for epilepsy.- Clinical experience with vagus nerve stimulation and deep brain stimulation in epilepsy.- Vagus nerve stimulation: indications and limitations.- Vagus nerve stimulation for intractable epilepsy: outcome in two series combining 90 patients.- Electrical stimulation and gene-based neuromodulation for control of medically-refractory epilepsy.- Rationale, mechanisms of efficacy, anatomical targets and future prospects of electrical deep brain stimulation for epilepsy.- Anatomical and physiological basis and mechanism of action of neurostimulation for epilepsy.- The role of neuromodulation of the hippocampus in the treatment of intractable complex partial seizures of the temporal lobe.- Neurosurgical aspects of temporal deep brain stimulation for epilepsy.- Deep brain stimulation for treatment of the epilepsies: the centromedian thalamic target.- Anterior thalamic nucleus stimulation for epilepsy.- Cerebellar and thalamic stimulation treatment for epilepsy.- A novel closed-loop stimulation system in the control of focal, medically refractory epilepsy.- Psychiatric disorders.- Neurosurgery for psychiatric disorders: from the excision of brain tissue to the chronic electrical stimulation of neural networks.- Behavioural and physiological effects of electrical stimulation in the nucleus accumbens: a review.- Neuromodulation of the inferior thalamic peduncle for major depression and obsessive compulsive disorder.- Chronic high frequency stimulation of the posteromedial hypothalamus in facial pain syndromes and behaviour disorders.- Vagus nerve stimulation for depression: rationale, anatomical and physiological basis of efficacy and future prospects.- Hearing disorders.- Experimental and clinical aspects of the efferent auditory system.- Functional outcome of auditory implants in hearing loss.- Auditory brainstem implants: current state and future directions with special reference to the subtonsillar approach for implantation.- Auditory brainstem implants: past, present and future prospects.- Twenty-five years of auditory brainstem implants: perspectives.- Auditory cortex stimulation for tinnitus.- Visual disorders.- Implantable visual prostheses.- Restoring visual perception using microsystem technologies: engineering and manufacturing perspectives.- A neuroprosthesis for restoring sight.- Towards the bionic eye — the retina implant: surgical, opthalmological and histopathological perspectives.- Computational neuromodulation.- Motor cortex stimulation: role of computer modeling.- Computational models simulating electrophysiological activity in the basal ganglia.- Computational perspectives on neuromodulation of aging.- Emerging applications.- The periaqueductal grey area and the cardiovascular system.- Therapeutic potential of computer to cerebral cortex implantable devices.- Trimodal nanoelectrode array for precise deep brain stimulation: prospects of a new technology based on carbon nanofiber arrays.- Neural networks on chemically patterned electrode arrays: towards a cultured probe.- Brain-computer interface: a reciprocal self-regulated neuromodulation.- Cicerone: stereotactic neurophysiological recording and deep brain stimulation electrode placement software system.- StimExplorer: deep brain stimulation parameter selection software system.- Connections of the basal ganglia with the limbic system: implications for neuromodulation therapies of anxiety and affective disorders.