This selection of articles from the Encyclopedia of the Eye is the first single-volume overview presenting articles on the function, biology, physiology, and pathology of the structures of the ocular periphery, as well as the related disorders and their treatment. The peripheral structures are implicated in a number of important diseases, including optic neuritis, thyroid eye disease, and strabismus. The volume offers a basic science background of these topics rather than a strictly clinical focus.
I. Anatomy and Pathophysiology of Blinking and Eye Movements Eyelid anatomy and the pathophysiology of blinking Differentiation and morphogenesis of extraocular muscles Extraocular muscle anatomy Extracocular muscle metabolism Extraocular muscles: proprioception and proprioceptors Abnormal eye movements due to disease of the extraocular muscles and their innervation Extraocular muscles: functional assessment in the clinic II. Structure and Function of the Tear Film, Ocular Adnexa, Cornea, and Conjunctiva in Health and Pathogenesis in Disease Meibomian glands and lipid layer Lacrimal gland overview Lacrimal gland hormone regulation Lacrimal gland signaling-neural Lids: Anatomy, pathophysiology, and mucocutaneous junction Ocular surface-overview of electrolyte and fluid transport across the conjunctiva Conjunctival Goblet cells Ocular mucins Tear drainage Cornea overview Corneal epithelium-cell biology and basic science Corneal nerves-anatomy Corneal nerves-function Corneal epithelium-wound healing junctions, attachment to stroma receptors, matrix metalloproteinases, intercellular communications Corneal epithelium-transport and permeability Stem cells of the ocular surface The ocular surface-the surgical treatment for corneal epithelial stem cell deficiency, corneal epithelial defects, and periferal corneal ulcer Refractive surgery Refractive surgery and inlays Contact lenses Imaging of the cornea The corneal stroma Corneal dystrophies Corneal imaging-clinical Corneal scars Corneal endothelium-overview Regulation of corneal endothelial function Regulation of corneal endothelial cell proliferation Artificial cornea Drug delivery to cornea and conjunctiva-esterase- and protease-directed prodrug design Knock-out mice models: cornea, conjunctiva, eyelids, and lacrimal glands Gene therapy III. Immune Regulation of the Cornea and Conjunctiva and Its Dysregulation in Disease Adaptive Immune System and the Eye: Mucosal Immunity Adaptive immune system and the eye: T-cell mediated immunity Innate immune system and the eye Immunoregulatory processes that sustain immune privilege in the eye Immunosupressive and anti-inflammatory molecules that maintain immune previlege of the eye Antigen-presenting cells in the eye and ocular surface Dry eye: An immune-based inflammation Penetrating keratoplasty Immunopathogenesis of HSV Keratitis Immunopathogenesis of Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) Immunopathogenesis of pseudomonas keratitis Immunobiology of acanthomeba karatitis Molecular and cellular mechanisms in allergic conjunctivitis Pathogenesis of fungal keratitis Conjunctiva Immune surveillance Defense mechanisms of tears and ocular surface Corneal epithelium- response to infection Inflammation of the Conjunctiva Concept of Angiogenic Privilege Corneal angiogenesis Avascularity of the cornea IV. Visual Acuity Related to the Cornea and Its Disorders Visual optics: pupil Acuity Contrast sensitivity Astigmatism Vera-Diaz- Myopia Levi-Amblyopia Harb- Hyperopia