86 short papers originating from the 13th International Symposium on Intracranial Pressure and Brain Monitoring held in July 2007 in San Francisco present experimental as well as clinical research data on invasive and non-invasive intracranial pressure and brain biochemistry monitoring. The papers have undergone a peer-reviewing and are organized in eight sections: brain injury: ICP management and cerebral physiology; hydrocephalus and cerebrospinal fluid dynamics; advanced neuromonitoring; biomedical informatics; imaging; ICP: brain compliance, biophysics, and biomechanics; stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intracerebral hematoma; and experimental studies and models. The papers address the increasing use of decompressive craniectomy for the treatment of brain edema as well after brain injury and the rapidly expanding field of advanced neuromonitoring and neuroimaging.
Brain injury: ICP management and cerebral physiology.- Cerebrovascular reactivity and autonomic drive following traumatic brain injury.- A comparison between the transfer function of ABP to ICP and compensatory reserve index in TBI.- Cranioplasty effect on the cerebral hemodynamics and cardiac function.- Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for consciousness disturbance following head injury in subacute phase.- Gender-related differences in intracranial hypertension and outcome after traumatic brain injury.- Long term outcomes following decompressive craniectomy for severe head injury.- Relationship of a cerebral autoregulatory index with outcome in head injured patients.- Assessment of cerebrovascular resistance with model of cerebrovascular pressure transmission.- Generation of very low frequency cerebral blood flow fluctuations in humans.- Accuracy of non-invasive ICP assessment can be increased by an initial individual calibration.- The impact of ventricular catheter impregnated with antimicrobial agents on infections in patients with ventricular catheter: interim report.- Assessment of mitochondrial impairment and cerebral blood flow in severe brain injured patients.- Mathematical models of cerebral hemodynamics for detection of vasospasm in major cerebral arteries.- Intracranial pressure in patients with sepsis.- Intracranial pressure and cerebral oxygenation changes after decompressive craniectomy in children with severe traumatic brain injury.- Are head injury guidelines changing the outcome of head injured children? A regional investigation.- Low frequency pressure waves of possible autonomic origin in severely head-injured children.- Controlled lumbar drainage in medically refractory increased intracranial pressure. A safe and effective treatment.- Decompressive craniotomy: durotomy instead of duroplasty to reduce prolonged ICP elevation.- Ventriculostomy for control of raised ICP in acute traumatic brain injury.- Intracranial pressure variability and long-term outcome following traumatic brain injury.- Predictive values of age and the Glasgow Coma Scale in traumatic brain injury patients treated with decompressive craniectomy.- Hydrocephalus and cerebrospinal fluid dynamics.- Noninvasive estimation of intracranial compliance in idiopathic NPH using MRI.- The role of cerebrospinal fluid flow study using phase contrast MR imaging in diagnosing idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.- Course of disease in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH): a follow-up study 3, 4 and 5 years following shunt implantation.- Chronic hydrocephalus that requires shunting in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage [a-SAH]: its impact on clinical outcome.- Morphological changes of intracranial pressure pulses are correlated with acute dilatation of ventricles.- Pulse amplitude of intracranial pressure waveform in hydrocephalus.- The influence of co-morbidity on the postoperative outcomes of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH).- ICM+, a flexible platform for investigations of cerebrospinal dynamics in clinical practice.- Pathophysiology and diagnosis of spontaneous intracranial hypotension.- Advanced neuromonitoring.- Intraoperative infrared brain surface blood flow monitoring during superficial temporal artery–middle cerebral artery anastomosis in a patient with moyamoya disease: clinical implication of the gradation value in postoperative clinical course – A case report.- Clinical study of craniospinal compliance non-invasive monitoring method.- Cerebral CO2 reactivity in severe head injury. A transcranial Doppler study.- Acetazolamide vasoreactivity evaluated by transcranial power harmonic imaging and Doppler sonography.- A new semi-invasive method for two dimensional pO2 measurements of cortical structures.- The relationship between intracranial pressure and brain oxygenation following traumatic brain injury in sheep.- Dual microdialysis probe monitoring for patients with traumatic brain injury.- In vitro comparison of two generations of Licox and Neurotrend catheters.- Cerebral metabolism monitoring during hypothermia following resuscitation from cardiopulmonary arrest.- Nitric oxide in acute brain injury: a pilot study of NO x concentrations in human brain microdialysates and their relationship with energy metabolism.- Biomedical informatics.- The brain monitoring with Information Technology (BrainIT) collaborative network: data validation results.- BrainIT collaborative network: analyses from a high time-resolution dataset of head injured patients.- Pilot application of fractal characterisation and its response to change on physiological wave forms.- Neuroimaging.- The predictive value of ICP as compared to magnetic resonance imaging in comatose patients after head injury.- Metabolic disturbance without brain ischemia in traumatic brain injury: A positron emission tomography study.- Concordant biology underlies discordant imaging findings: diffusivity behaves differently in grey and white matter post acute neurotrauma.- Qualitative aspects of cranial CT perfusion scanning in a mixed neurosurgical patient collective.- Study of perfusion in and around cerebral contusions by means of computed tomography.- Magnetic resonance measurement of blood and CSF flow rates with phase contrast – normal values, repeatability and CO2 reactivity.- ICP: Brain complicance, biophysics, and biomechanics.- Motor trephine syndrome: A mechanistic hypothesis.- Biomechanical modeling of decompressive craniectomy in traumatic brain injury.- Coupling of sagittal sinus pressure and cerebrospinal fluid pressure in idiopathic intracranial hypertension – a preliminary report.- The measurement of brain tissue stiffness in-vivo.- Stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intracerebral hematoma.- Changes in brain biochemistry and oxygenation in the zone surrounding primary intracerebral hemorrhage.- Prediction of early mortality in primary intracerebral hemorrhage in an asian population.- Ischemic events after carotid interventions in relationship to baseline cerebrovascular reactivity.- Effect of increased intracranial pressure on cerebral vasospasm in SAH.- Cerebral blood flow thresholds predicting new hypoattenuation areas due to macrovascular ischemia during the acute phase of severe and complicated aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A preliminary study.- Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning activates ribosomal protein S6 kinases and reduces brain swelling after intracerebral hemorrhage.- Stroke with subarachnoid hemorrhage: assessment of cerebrovascular pressure regulation and simulated cerebrovascular resistance.- Effects of melatonin in early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage.- Decompressive craniectomy for hemispheric infarction: predictive factors for six month rehabilitation outcome.- Effects of temperature changes on cerebral biochemistry in spontaneous intracerebral hematoma.- Increased levels of CSF heart-type fatty acid-binding protein and tau protein after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.- Experimental studies and models.- DNA vaccination against neurite growth inhibitors to enhance functional recovery following traumatic brain injury.- Ischemic blood-brain barrier and amyloid in white matter as etiological factors in leukoaraiosis.- Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition attenuates brain edema after surgical brain injury.- Thrombin enhances glioma growth.- The antioxidant effects of melatonin in surgical brain injury in rats.- Dymanics of matrix-metalloproteinase 9 after brain trauma – results of a pilot study.- Experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in the rat: influences of nimodipine.- Neuroprotective effect of C1-inhibitor following traumatic brain injury in mice.- Up-regulation of L type amino acid transporter 1 after spinal cord injury in rats.- Cortical expression of prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH) and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) is not increased in experimental traumatic brain injury.- Simvastatin attenuates cerebral vasospasm and improves outcomes by upregulation of PI3K/Akt pathway in a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage.- HIF-1 alpha inhibition ameliorates neonatal brain damage after hypoxic-ischemic injury.- Simvastatin treatment in surgically induced brain injury in rats.- 3% Hypertonic saline following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.- Effect of traumatic brain injury on cognitive function in mice lacking p55 and p75 tumor necrosis factor receptors.- Brain contusions induce a strong local overexpression of MMP-9. Results of a pilot study.- Shock wave-induced brain injury in rat: Novel traumatic brain injury animal model.- Modulation of AQP4 expression by the selective V1a receptor antagonist, SR49059, decreases trauma-induced brain edema.- The modulation of aquaporin-4 by using PKC-activator (phorbol myristate acetate) and V1a receptor antagonist (SR49059) following middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion in the rat.- Pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic elements of the neuroinflammatory response are activated in traumatic brain injury.- Protective effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on experimental brain contusions.