In the last few decades the research on bioelectromagnetics has expanded worldwide. About one thousand researchers are now working in the field in a variety of institutions throughout the world, including medical, biological, engineering, and technical laboratories and protection agencies. After many years of research, a clear picture is now emerging: Initially the research was mainly interested in the therapeutic applications of ELF electric and magnetic fields, and the RF range was mainly taken into consideration with respect to thermal effects only. Then, tne growing body of biological effects of ELF fields on cells and biological tissues (particularly for the repair processes in bone) have drawn the attention of researchers to non-thermal effects, ranging from static fields to microwaves. A specific field of interest that has been the object of a large debate in the last twenty years has been the potential health risk associated with electric power production and distribution and, more recently, with domestic and industrial appliances. In the last few years, the explosion of the market for cellularphones has highlighted the issue of possible health dangers related to their use and to the widespread presence of base stations. The first World Congress on Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, was held in Orlando, Florida, in 1992, and collected the widest amount of contributi9ns from almost all the major researchers involved in the field.
Bioelectromagnetism in the History of Bologna.- Epidemiological Studies on Health Effects of Electromagnetic Fields.- Biophysical Chemistry of Signal Transduction.- Mechanisms of Biological Interaction with Electric and Magnetic Fields.- Effects of Extremely Low Frequency EMF on Signal Transduction Pathways in Vitro.- Biomedical Applications of Short, Intense Electric Pulses.- Health Aspects of Mobile Communication: Risks to the Central Nervous System.- The Future Technology of Mobile Telephone Systems and Other Wireless Services.- Policy and Electromagnetic Fields.- Horizons in Science: Physical Regulation of Living Matter as an Emergent Concept in Health and Disease.- Melatonin, Breast Cancer, and Magnetic Fields: Replication Studies.- Magnetic Fields and Breast Cancer: Experimental in Vivo Studies on the Melatonin Hypothesis.- 50-Hz Magnetic Field Exposure and Melatonin in the Rat.- EMF Standards for Occupational and Environmental Exposure in Eastern European Countries: Present Status and Trends for International Harmonization.- The European Pre-Standard ENV 50166 « Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields» in Context.- Limits for Electric and Magnetic Fields: Grounds and Developments at the European Community Level.- NATO Activities as an Aid toward International Harmonization of EMF Standards.- Regulations and Recommendations in Sweden.- Role of Electrochemistry in Molecular Electronics and Biocomputing.- Electric Control of Molecular Dipoles: A Paradigm for Information Processing.- Magnetic Fields and Spatial Learning in Mice.- Non-Ionizing Electromagnetic Fields and Spatial Learning and Memory Functions.- In Vitro Laboratory Experiments Related to Cellular Telephone Communication.- In Vivo Laboratory Experiments Related to Cellular Telephone Communication.- Effects of 1.6 GHz Microwaves (Continuous and Pulsed Waves) on c-Fos, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, and NSCL-1 Gene Expression in the Mouse Brain.- Epidemiologic Studies Related to Cellular Telephone Communication.- Cartilage Differentiation and Bone Healing.- Electrical Stimulation of Tibial Osteotomies: A Double Blind Study.- EMF Stimulates Cartilage Differentiation in Endochondral Ossification Coincident with an Increase in TGFß Expression.- Comparison of lontophoresis and Electroporation: Mechanisms and Tolerance.- Recent Advances in Skin Electroporation: Mechanism and Efficacy.- Injury Associated with High Voltage Pulsing for Transdermal Drug Delivery.- Exposure to Weak Oscillating Magnetic Fields Modify Spontaneous and Evoked Brain Electrical Activities in Humans.- Effect of Prolonged Exposure to 50 Hz Electromagnetic Fields on Neurotransmitters and Receptors in Rat Brain.- Biological Effects of Microwave Radiation.- Computer Modeling for Cellular Phones Dosimetry.- Changes in Gene Expression following EMF Exposure.- The Mechanism of Magnetic Field Stimulation of the Stress Response is Similar to Other Environmental Stresses.- Use of Non-Mammalian Model Systems to Investigate Mechanism Mediating Biological Interactions with Power Frequency Electromagnetic Fields.- Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields and Cell Proliferation.- Immunological Effects of ELF Electric and Magnetic Fields: An Overview.- Thymus as a Possible Target of 50 Hz Electric and Magnetic Fields.- Lymphocytes: ASensor for Genotoxic Effects of ELF Electric and Magnetic Fields.- Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field Exposure of Mitogen Stimulated Human T-Lymphocytes.- Effects and Mechanisms of Intense DC Magnetic Fields on Biological, Physical and Chemical Processes.- Magnetic Orientation of Fibrin and Other Biopolymers.- Bacterial Growth under Strong Magnetic Field.- Nonlinear Dynamics.- Resonances and Magnetic Field Detection in Biological Systems.- Correlation of Thermal Electrical Noise in Ion Channel Arrays.- Biological Electron Transfer: A Possible Framework for Some of the Biological Effects of ELF Magnetic Fields?.- Mechanical Properties of Lipid Bilayers and Protein-Lipid Interactions.- Mechanoelectrical and Electromechanical Energy Transduction Mechanisms.- Shapes of Vesicles and Cells under Forces Exerted on the Enclosing Membrane.- Mechanism of Neuronal Shape Transformation and Its Electrical Consequences.- The Bacterial Flagellar Motor: A Brief Review of Models and a New Electrostatic Model.- Molecular Transport across Stratum Corneum due to Electric Pulses: Behavior of Localized Transport Regions (LTRS).- Passive Electrical Properties of Human Stratum Corneum during Application of Electric Fields.- Cell Electromanipulation Procedures Change the pH of a Solution.- Weak ELF Electric Field Effects on Ca2+ Dependent Regulatory Enzymes in the Respiratory Pathway; a Mechanism of Interaction between ELF EM Fields and Organic Systems?.- Effects of 14 Tesla Magnetic Field on Hydration and Structure of Water Molecules.- Bioluminescence of the Firefly Luciola Cruciata under Strong DC Magnetic Fields.- Magnetic Field Environment in ULF Range (0-5 Hz) in Urban Areas: Man-Made and Natural Fields in St. Petersburg (Russia).- Effects of External Magnetic (50 Hz) Fields on Visual Display Units.- Comparison of FD-TD and Experimentally Determined Local SAR Values in a Rhesus Monkey Model.- 3-Dimensional Models for EMF Dosimetry.- Numerical Approaches for Microwave Bioelectromagnetic Applications.- Experimental Calibration Procedure at 1.8 GHz of Electric Field Probes in a Slotted Waveguide.- Whole-Body SAR in a Full-Size Human Model at 28.9 kHz.- RF-Induced Ankle Heating in a Rhesus Monkey at 100 MHz.- Magnetic Field Dosimetry - Biophysical and Clinical Aspects.- Evaluation of Induced Currents in Human Models by Power Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Using a BEM Technique.- Altered Cumulative Calcium Influx for Biological Cells: An Illustration of the Theory of Signal Averaging by Rectification of Weak Extremely Low Frequency Electric Fields.- Exposure Parameters during Studies with ELF Magnetic and Electric Fields.- Background ELF Magnetic Fields in a Great Urban Area.- Measurement of Exposure to Magnetic Fields from Electrical Appliances.- Evaluation of the Magnetic Fields Generated by Underground Cable and Overhead Power Transmission Lines Using Calculation Models.- Assessment of Magnetic Induction Levels near Middle and Low Voltage Distribution Transformers.- Investigation of the Exposure Situation and the Immune Response of High Frequency Exposed Workers in Austria.- Long-Term Measurements of Magnetic Fields in Exposure Assessment.- Exposure Levels to Electromagnetic Fields in Normal Operative Situations.- Combination of the Effects Function Approach and Decision Analysis in Evaluating Power Frequency Field Policy Options.- Measurements of Personal Exposure to MF in Korean Population.- Low Frequency Dependent Magnetic Field Effects in Biological Systems and the Radical Pair Mechanism.- Alterations of Electron Transfer and Energy Conservation in Mitochondrial Complex I (NADH-Coenzyme Q Oxido- Reductase) in Aging.- Combined Action of Temperature and Millimeter Waves on Luminescence Characteristics of Thylakoid Membrane.- The State of the Science for the Langevin-Lorentz Model.- Validation of the Quantum Z-S Model by means of the Interaction between MW Fields and Zn-Protoporphyrin System.- Solvent-Hemoglobin Binding Site Interaction under Microwave Electromagnetic Exposure: A Molecular Dynamic Study.- A Direct Comparison between Experimental and Theoretical Results of Ligand-site Binding in Heme Groups Exposed to Microwave Fields.- EMF Signals and Ion/Ligand Binding Kinetics: Prediction of Bioeffective Waveform Parameters.- A Larmor Precession/Dynamical System Model Allows? T-Range Magnetic Field Effects on Ion Binding in the Presence of Thermal Noise.- Experimental and Theoretical Evaluation of the Interaction of Biogenic Magnetite with Magnetic Fields.- The Sensitivity of Cells and Tissues to Exogenous Fields:Dependence upon Target System Initial State.- Neuronal Cells under Electromagnetic Exposure: A Link between Microscopic and Macroscopic Modelling.- Influence of Mobile Telecommunication Fields on Ligand Binding to Hydrophobic Metallo-Proteins.- A Formula for Frequency and Amplitude Windows of Some ELF and Null MF Bioeffects Follows from the Schroedinger Equation.- Biophysical Constraints on the Biological Effects of Radio-Frequency and Microwave Radiation.- Cell Membrane Pore Creation via Magnetic Particles: Biomagnetic Stimulation and Transient Magnetic Fields.- Theoretical Issues in Understanding Local Transport Regions in Electroporated Stratum Corneum.- A Theoretical Model for Cell Electroporation: Quantitative Description of Electrical Behavior.- Modeling of the Processes of Pore Creation and Disappearance in a Cell under the Influence of Strong Electric Field as Random One-Step Processes.- Interface Convection in Water as a Primary Mechanism of Extra High Frequency Irradiation Effects.- Changes of Intercellular Communication Induced by Alternating Electric Fields Correlate with Changes of cAMP.- Uncharacterized Physical Parameters Can Contribute More Than Magnetic Field Exposure to ODC Activity in Vitro.- Responses of Human MG-63 Osteosarcoma Cell Line and Human Osteoblast-like Cells to Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields.- Effects of ELF Magnetic Fields on Collagen Synthesis in Osteoblasts.- Experimental Factors Affecting Dielectric Spectroscopy Measurements on Cell Suspensions of Chinese Hamster Fibroblasts.- Differential Inhibition of Tamoxifen’s Oncostatic Functions in a Human Breast Cancer Cell Line by a 12mGauss (1.2µT) Magnetic Field.- A 12 mGauss (1.2?T) Magnetic Field Inhibits Tamoxifen’s Oncostatic Action in a Second Human Breast Cancer Cell Line: T47D.- Magnetic Fields Reduce the Growth Inhibitory Effects of Tamoxifen in a Human Brain Tumor Cell Line.- Effects of Ultrawide Band Microwave Pulses on Rat Hearts in Vitro.- Effects of Weak ELF on E. coli Cells and Human Lymphocytes: Role of Genetic, Physiological, and Physical Parameters.- Electromagnetic Field Effects on the Morphometrical Characteristics of Rat Adrenal Glands.- Electromagnetic Field Effects on the Morphology of Rat Thyroid Gland.- A Weak Magnetic Field Caused the Increase of Proteins in the Brain.- Ornithine Decarboxylase Activity and Morphology of Chick Embryos Exposed to 60 Hz Magnetic Fields during Neurulation.- Effects of Randomly Varied Power Frequency Magnetic Fields on the Life-Expectancy of Two Strains of Mice.- The Influence of Long-Term Exposure to Randomly Varied Power Frequency Magnetic Fields on the Fertility of the Mouse.- The Influence of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Electromagnetic (EM) Fields on Freshwater Bacterioplankton Communities.- Influence of the Pulsating Electromagnetic Field (PEMF) on Spring Barley.- Human Heart Rate Changes in Response to 50 Hz Sinusoidal and Square Waveform Magnetic Fields: A Follow up Study.- Cardiovascular Effects of Short Term Exposure to Fields of Electricity Power Transmission.- Modulation of Oscillation and Synchrony in the CNS by Exposure to Weak ELF Magnetic Fields.- Magnetic Properties of the Heart, Spleen and Liver: Evidence for Biogenic Magnetite in Human Organs.- Does Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields Affect Blood Pressure?.- Endogenous Electrical Fields and Embryonic Development.- Physiological Gradients of Voltage as Controls of Neural Morphogenesis.- Influence of a 50 Hz Sinusoidal Magnetic Field on Sea Urchin Embryogenesis.- On a Role of Endogenous Electric Fields in a Functional Cell Activity.- Environmental Magnetic Field Exhibit No Quantitative Change in Rabbit Reticulocyte Lysate Translation System.- The Effect of Repetitive Magnetic Stimulation on the Expression of the Heat Shock Protein in Normal and Oncogenically Transformed Fibroblast Cells.- Combined Action of Static Magnetic Field and Temperature on the Surface Electric Charge of the Erythrocyte Membrane.- Activating the Electrogenic Molecular Pumps, Na/K ATPase, by Weak Oscillating Electrical Fields.- Calcium Dependent Activation of Human Blood Neutrophils by Electric Field Pulses.- Intramembrane Proteins Clustering Induced by 50 Hz Pulsed Magnetic Fields Is Reverted to a Random Distribution in the Absence of the Field Exposure.- A Study of the Effects of 10.75 GHz Microwave Radiation on Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Ion Channels.- Effect of Magnetic Field Exposure on Calcium Channel Currents Using Patch-Clamp Technique.- Effects of Time-Varying Strong Magnetic Field on K+ Uptake through Ca2+-Dependant K+ Channel.- Intracellular Calcium Mobilization Did Not Occur in Immune Cells Exposed to 50-Hz, 0.1 mT Linearly and Circularly Polarized Magnetic Fields.- Experimental Setup for Study of Calcium Wave Propagation in Astroglial Cells Exposed to ELF MF.- Synergistic Effects of UVA-and EMF on Neuroblastoma Cells.- Ultrastructural Distribution of Calcium after ELF Modulated Microwave and GSM Modulated RF Irradiaton in the Temporal Cortex of Rat Brain.- Static µT-Level Magnetic Fields Modulate Myosin Phosphorylation via Kinetic Effects on Calcium Binding to Calmodulin.- A New Interpretation of the Effect of Magnetic Treatments on the Initial Orientation of Homing Pigeons.- Physiological and Perceptual Responses of Human Volunteers during Whole-Body RF Exposure at 450 MHz.- Weak Magnetic Field Speeds Up the Information Processing.- High Peak Power, Low SAR Effects on Memory Task Performance in Rhesus Monkeys.- Electromagnetic Fields and Learning: The Importance of Experimental Design and Analysis.- Operant Behavior Tests in Rats after Prenatal Exposure to High Frequency Electromagnetic Fields.- Cytokine Production by Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) after in Vitro Exposure to 50 Hz Magnetic Fields.- Exposure to 50 Hz Magnetic Field Is Affecting Morphological and Biophysical Properties of Human Lymphoid Cell Line (RAJI).- Effect of Millimeter Waves on the Concentration of Ceruloplasmin in the Blood Plasma of Gamma-Irradiated Rats.- Effects of ELF Exposure on Murine Immune System.- The Effect of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on the Induction of Cytokines by Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.- Enhancement of T-Cell Mediated Immunity by Millimetric Waves.- Lack of Promoting Effects of the Electromagnetic Near-Field for Cellular Phones (929 MHz) on Rat Liver Carcinogenesis in Medium-Term Liver Bioassay.- ELF Magnetic Field and Ionic Resonance: Preliminary Results on Genotoxicity and Cell Proliferation.- A Study on Progression of Spontaneous Leukemia in AKR Mice Exposed to 50 Hz, Circularly Polarized Magnetic Field for 24 Weeks.- 60 Hz Power Frequency Magnetic Field-Enhancement of X-Ray Induced Oncogenic Transformation in Embryonic Tissue.- Effects of ELF Magnetic Fields on Cellular Proliferation in in Vivo System.- Effect of Strong Static Magnetic Fields on Mutagenicity of Chemical Mutagens in Bacterial Mutation Assay.- Evidence of Changes in Genomic Location of Transponsable Elements in Drosophilia melanogaster Flies Exposed to Static Magnetic Fields.- Lymphoma/Leukemia in Mice Exposed to 60 Hz Magnetic Fields.- Preliminary Results on Human Lymphocytes Exposed In Vitro to Cellular Telephone Microwave Frequency.- Can EMF Exposure Emulate a Tumor Promoter? Designing Endpoints.- Influence of Various HF Fields on Growth Behavior of HL-60 Cells to Investigate Cancer Promoting Effects.- The Stimulation of Proliferation of Carcinogenically Initiated INIT/C3H/10T1/2Cells by Imposing a 60 Hz Magnetic Field: a Magnetic Field or a Thermal Effect?.- Exposure of Bacteriophage, DNA, and Growing Bacterial Cells to Modulated Electromagnetic Radiations: No DNA Damage or Mutagenicity Observed.- Calculation of the Power Deposited in Tissues Close to a Handset Antenna Using a Non-Uniform FDTD.- Human Electrophysiological Studies on the Influence of RF Exposure Emitted by GSM Cellular Phones.- Optimization of Handset Antennas to Reduce Interaction with the User.- FDTD Handset Antenna Modelling at 900 MHz for Electrical Performance and SAR Results.- Characterization of an Exposure System Operating at Frequencies of Hand Held Mobile Devices.- EEG Activity of the Human Brain during Exposure to Cellular Phones.- A Model to Evaluate the Temperature Distribution in a Human Eye Exposed to the Field Radiated by the Mobile Antenna in a Wireless LAN.- GSM Cellular Phones Interference with Implantable Ventricular Defribillators.- Nerve Conduction Velocity and Mobile Phones.- Analysis of the MRI-Used Bird Cage Resonator.- 1H-MR Analysis of Restricted Diffusion Applied to Bone Tissue Characterization and Pathologies.- Radiofrequency Safety Standard-Setting in the United States.- Prediction of E.M.Susceptibility at Radio Frequencies of Ligand Binding to Hydrophobic Metalloproteins.- FD-TD Analysis of SAR Distributions inside Human Head Excited by Cellular Phone Antennas.- Magnetic Field Monitoring on Board of DC Electrified Transport in Russia.- Health Effects among Engine Drivers: Possible Association with Occupational Exposure to Magnetic Fields from DC Electrified Transport.- Survey of ELF Magnetic Fields in Locomotives of the Italian Railways.- Exposure to Magnetic Fields at Work and Public Areas at the Finnish Railways.- Exposure Metrics of Magnetic Fields from Electrified Transport.- Exposure Guidelines for Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields.- Education as a Basic Requirement of the Labour Protection.- Assessment of the Modified EMDEX II Dosimeter in Measuring the Exposure of a 1 kHz Induction Furnace Operators.- An RF Exposure System for Bacteriophage, DNA, and Growing Bacterial Cells.- Analysis of Cancer Morbidity in Polish Career Military Personnel Exposed Occupationally to Radiofrequency and Microwave Radiation.- Sickness Absence from 1978 to 1992 of Electricité De France (EDF) Workers Exposed to ELF EMF.- Electromagnetic Fields and Childhood Leukemia: Pooled Analyses of Two German Population-Based Case-Control Studies.- Mapping of Magnetic Fields in City Environment.- ECG Abnormalities in Workers Exposed to Electromagnetic Fields at Different Exposure Levels.- Epidemiological Research on Magnetic Field Exposure from Cellular Phones and Risk of Cancer.- Extremely Low Frequency Waves Do Not Cause Damage to the Crystalline Lens in Rats.- Supramembrane Potential-Induced Electroconformational Changes of the Voltage-Gated Na Channels Is a Possible Mechanism in Electrical Injury.- Magnetic Fields (60Hz, 5mT) Do Not Influence MCF-7 Growth in Melatonin Insensitive Cells.- Nocturnal Secretion of 6-Hydroxymelatonin Sulfate in Mice Exposed to 900 MHz Radio Frequency Radiation or 50 Hz Magnetic Fields.- Long-Term Exposure of Mice to Power Frequency Magnetic Fields: Night-Time Melatonin Production.- Effect of Stimulation by Low-Frequency Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in Subjects with Fracture of the Femoral Neck.- Gene Expression during the Early Phases of Bone Repair in the Horse: Effects of Electromagnetic Field Exposure.- Topographic Mapping Using Dexa Provides a Technique for Assessing the Effects of Electrical Stimulation on Bone Remodelling.- Effect of Electrical Stimulation on Wound Healing: A Review.- State of the Art in Electromagnetic Therapeutics: Soft Tissue Applications.- Effect of Pulsed Radiofrequency. Stimulation on Wound Healing: A Double-Blind Pilot Clinical Study.- Electric Field Modulates DNA Synthesis of Dermal Fibroblasts in Collagen Matrix.- The Effect of Electricity on Joint Contracture Due to Immobilization:Direct Current Stimulation in Rat Experiment.- Effect of Applied Electric Fields on Astrocytic Scar Formation after Spinal Cord Injury.- Pulsed Magnetic Fields: A Glimmer of Hope for Patient Suffering from Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.- Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Stimulated by Pulsating Electromagnetic Field (PEMF) and Laser.- Mechanism of Membrane Electroporation and Vesicle Deformation.- Macromolecules as Novel Transdermal Transport Enhancers for Skin Electroporation.- Skin Electroporation for Transdermal Drug Delivery.- Electric Sympathetic Block for the Treatment of Pain.- The Effects of Pulsed Electrical Protocols on Skin Damage, Sensation, and Pain.- Electric-Pulse-Induced Permeabilization and Molecular Transport through Porcine Skin Using Surface Electrodes.- Molecular Uptake in Yeast by Electroporation: Evidence for a Plateau.- Development of Electrochemical Treatment at the City of Hope.- Electrically Mediated Mammalian Cell Permeabilization to Macromolecules Application to Gene Transfer.- Iontophoresis Causes Molecular Transport through Hair Follicles and Sweat Ducts in the Skin.- The Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Hand with Pulsed Electrical Fields.- Subcutaneous Tissue Diagnosis through Estimation of Structure by Bioimpedance and Its Equivalent Circuits.- Mechanical Stimulation of Cartilage by Ultrasound.- Increase in ODC Activity in Organs of Animals Exposed to 60 Hz Linear,Sinusoidal Continuous-Wave Magnetic Fields of Different Intensities.- Chronic Toxicity/Oncogenicity Studies of 60 Hz Magnetic Fields in F344 Rats and B6C3F1 Mice: Final Survival, Body Weight, Clinical Observation, and Gross Pathology Data.- Cancer Promotion Test Using AKR Mice under Exposure to 50 Hz Linearly and Ellipsoidally Polarized Magnetic Fields.- Carcinogenicity Test Using B6C3F1 Mice after Parental and Prenatal Exposure to 50 Hz Magnetic Fields. Results of Histopathological Examination.- Vibration in Microtubules.- Search for the Effect of Millimeter Waves on Synaptic Processes in the Central Nervous System.- Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of Human Parietal Lobe Relieves Induced Pain through Endorphin Release.- Independently Replicated Biological Effects of ELF Electromagnetic Fields: A Literature Study.- Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity as a Progressive Disease.