In the global infectious-disease research community, there has long been uncertainty about the conditions under which biological resources may be studied or transferred out of countries. This work examines the reasons for that uncertainty and shows how global biomedical research has been shaped by international disputes over access to biological resources. Bringing together government leaders, World Health Organization officials, and experts in virology, wildlife biology, clinical ethics, technology transfer, and international law, the book identifies the critical problems - and implications of these problems - posed by negotiating for access and sharing benefits, and proposes solutions to ensure that biomedical advances are not threatened by global politics. Written in accessible, non-technical language, this work should be read by anyone who sees global health and biomedical research as a priority for international lawmakers.
Introduction: Viral Sovereignty, Technology Transfer, and the Changing Global System for Sharing Pathogens for Public Health Research Sam Halabi and Rebecca Katz; Part I. The Geopolitical, Historical, and Scientific Context: 1. The History of Accessing and Sharing Human Pathogens for Public Health Research Michelle Rourke; 2. Attitudes towards transfers of human research samples across borders: A multi-country perspective Ben Krohmal; 3. The Scope of Global Infectious Disease Research: Field Capture, Quarantine, and Sample Transfer to Detect Emerging Pathogen Threats Brian Bird; Part II. Health Security, Research Ethics, and Human Rights Implications; 4. The Ethics of Conducting Genomic Research in Low-Resource Settings Hayley K. Sullivan and Benjamin E. Berkman ; 5. The Ethics of Human Pathogen Research during Public Health Emergencies in Low- and Middle Income Countries: Lessons from Latin America and the Caribbean Sam Halabi; 6. Biosecurity, Biosafety and the Management of Dangerous Pathogens for Public Health Research Joshua Teperowski Monrad and Rebecca Katz; 7. Human Rights Implications of Pathogen Sharing and Technology Transfer Alexandra Phelan; Part III. Solutions; Standard Material Transfer Agreements, Repositories, and Specialized International Instruments: 8. Material Transfer Agreements and the Regulation of the Collaborative Environment Sherry Brett-Major; 9. Sharing of Biological Samples during Public Health Emergencies: Challenges and Opportunities for National and International Action Maria Julia Marinissen, Ruvani Chandrasekera, John Simpson, Theodore Kuschak, and Lauren Barna; 10. Facilitating Material Transfer Agreements from a Practitioner's Perspective Michael Mowatt and Mukul Ranjan; 11. The Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework as an Access and Benefit Sharing Mechanism Anne Huvos, Steven A. Solomon and Claudia Nannini; Conclusion Gian Luca Burci.