This thoroughly revised textbook provides a practically applicable guide to three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE). Background is provided on the evolution of the technology and physics that support the implementation of both transthoracic and transesophageal approaches to 3DE. The incremental value of 3DE to assess cardiac chambers is also described. Moreover, a range of cardiac valvular diseases including the mitral, aortic, and tricuspid valve have been portrayed and illustrated in depth.These include congenital abnormalities, regurgitation and stenosis. Emphasis is also placed on technical aspects of the technique and where it can provide added value, including post-surgery assessments and evaluation of cardiac masses. Textbook of Three-Dimensional Echocardiography enables readers to develop a deep understanding of how to use this imaging modality. It provides a valuable resource for the echocardiography trainee looking to develop their knowledge and for the experienced practitioner seeking a comprehensive up-to-date reference.
The Evolution of Three-Dimensional Echocardiography: From the Initial Concept to Real-Time Imaging.- Physics and Technical Principles of Three-Dimensional Echocardiography.- Technical Principles of Transesophageal Three-Dimensional Echocardiography.- How to Implement Three-Dimensional Echocardiography in the Routine of the Echocardiography Laboratory.- Routine Assessment of the Left Ventricle.- Advanced Assessment of the Left Ventricle.- The Normal Mitral Valve.- Mitral Valve Congenital Abnormalities and Stenosis.- Degenerative Mitral Regurgitation.- Functional Mitral Regurgitation.- Assessment During and After Surgery or Interventional Procedures on the Mitral Valve.- The Normal Aortic Valve Complex.- Aortic Valve Congenital Abnormalities and Stenosis.- Aortic Regurgitation.- Assessment After Surgery or Interventional Procedures on the Aortic Valve.- Left Atrium.- Assessment of the Right Ventricle.- The Normal Tricuspid Valve.- Tricuspid Valve: Congenital Abnormalities and Stenosis.- Organic Tricuspid Regurgitation.- Functional Tricuspid Regurgitation.- Assessment After Surgery or Interventional Procedures on the Tricuspid Valve.- The Right Atrium.- The Role of 3DE in the Evaluation of Cardiac Masses.- X-Ray-Echo Fusion Imaging In Catheter-Based Structural Heart Disease Interventions.