This second edition of Freemark's text embodies all of the strengths of the original work but is deeper and broader in scope, with new chapters on emerging themes including metabolomics, genomics, and the roles of gastrointestinal hormones, the microbiome, brown adipose tissue, and endocrine disruptors in the pathogenesis of childhood obesity. Reviews of the effects of weight excess on cognitive performance and immune function complement detailed analyses of the biochemical and molecular pathways controlling the development of childhood adiposity and metabolic disease. Critical assessments of nutritional interventions (including new chapters on infant feeding practices and vegetarian diets) and superb reviews of behavioral counseling, pharmacotherapy, and bariatric surgery provide practical guidance for the management of overweight children. Penetrating analyses of the obesity epidemic in its social, cultural, economic, and political contexts highlight challenges and opportunities for obesity prevention and community action. The perspective is international in scope and reflects the expertise and experience of many of the leading figures in the field.
Comprehensive and up-to-date, this new edition of Pediatric Obesity: Etiology, Pathogenesis and Treatment will be an invaluable guide for all healthcare providers and policy makers concerned with the evaluation and care of children with nutritional and metabolic disease and with the societal implications of the obesity epidemic.
I. The Obesity Epidemic: A Global Perspective.- Global Dynamics in Childhood Obesity: Reflections on a Life of Work in the Field.- Childhood Malnutrition and the Origins of Obesity in the Developing World.- II. Hormonal and Metabolic Control of Appetite, Fat Deposition and Energy Expenditure.- The Neuroendocrine Control of Energy Balance.- GI Hormones and the Control of Food Intake.- The Microbiome and Control of Weight Gain.- III. Adipocyte Development and Function in Obesity and IR.- Control of White Adipose Tissue Development and Function in Obesity: Preclinical Models.- White Adipose Distribution and Function in Healthy and Obese Children.- Brown and Beige Fat: Development, Regulation and Function.- IV. The Genetics of Childhood Obesity.- Monogenic Obesity.- Syndromic Obesity.- Polygenic Obesity.- Racial Differences in Childhood Obesity: Pathogenesis and Complications.- V. Pre- and Perinatal Determinants of Childhood Obesity.- Maternal Determinants of Childhood Obesity: Weight Gain, Smoking, and Breastfeeding.- Intrauterine Growth Retardation.- Gestational Diabetes.- Endocrine Disruptors as Obesogens.- VI. The Role of Diet and Energy Expenditure in Obesity Pathogenesis.- Early Childhood Feeding Practices and Development of Childhood Obesity.- Macronutrients in the Development, Treatment and Prevention of Obesity: Two Views.- Carbohydrates and the Glycemic Index.- Caloric Intake, Caloric Density, and Fiber.- Energy Expenditure in Children: The Role of NEAT.- VII. Metabolic Complications of Childhood Obesity.- Childhood Obesity and the Regulation of Growth, Thyroid Function, Sexual Development and Calcium Homeostasis.- Metabolic Signatures in Childhood Obesity.- Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance and Glucose Intolerance in Childhood Obesity.- Type 2 Diabetes in Children.- Pathogenesis and Management of Dyslipidemia in Obese Children.- Fatty Liver Disease.- Pathogenesis of Hypertension and Renal Disease in Obesity.- Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Sleep Duration in Childhood Obesity.- The Long-Term Metabolic Complications of Childhood Obesity.- Childhood Obesity, Atherogenesis and Adult Cardiovascular Disease.- Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Function.- VIII. Treatment of Childhood Obesity: Lifestyle Intervention.- Family-Based Behavioral Interventions.- Exercise and Childhood Obesity.- School- and Community-Based Interventions.- IX. Pharmacotherapy and Bariatric Surgery for Obesity and Co-morbidities.- Pharmacotherapy of Childhood Obesity and Pre-Diabetes.- Pathogenesis and Management of Adiposity and Insulin Resistance in PCOS.- Obesity and Metabolic Dysfunction in the Child with a Major Behavioral Disorder: Atypical Antipsychotics.- Hypothalamic Obesity.- Bariatric Surgery in Adolescents.- X. Challenges to Long-Term Success.- Neuroendocrine and Metabolic Adaptations in the Central Nervous System that Facilitate Weight Regain.- The Sociocultural Context for Obesity Prevention and Treatment in Children and Adolescents: Influences of Ethnicity and Gender.- XI. The Future of Childhood Obesity in the Global Marketplace.- The Marketing and Distribution of Fast Food.- Local and National Policy-Based Interventions: To Improve Children's Nutrition.