Occult atherosclerotic diseases impose great challenges in the cardiovascular practice. Although their pathology is not much different from that of the overt group of diseases, the clinical approach to their diagnoses remains a puzzle. This has mainly emerged as a result of the problems faced in trying to pick up the vulnerable subjects from among the general public. More definitive candidates to be evaluated are those belonging to one of the high risk groups. There are no statistical figures available on the incidence of occult atherosclerotic disease in the "non risky" general public and this is definitely an area that needs further investigation. Atherosclerotic disease whether they are in the cerebral, coronary, renal or lower limb arteries are theoretically interrelated because the basic patho logical changes are usually similar. However there still remain some differ ences which are mainly due to variation in the flow pattern in the arteries. Thus it will be important clinically and from the management point of view to investigate for the presence of occult disease in other arteries if an atherosclerotic disease in a certain artery has been discovered. This approach is of a great significance especially from the preventive point of view in order to avoid catastrophic events which may have resulted from pathology in the other region.
One: Pathophysiological considerations.- 1. The cell biology of atherosclerosis.- 2. The pathology of atherosclerosis.- Two: Occult carotid and cerebrovascular disease.- 3. The natural history of asymptomatic carotid artery disease.- 4. Techniques of screening, diagnosis and assessment of occult carotid and cerebrovascular disease.- 5. The diagnosis and management of occult atherosclerotic disease of the extra-cranial carotid artery.- Three: Occult coronary artery disease.- 6. Risk factors and epidemiology in the pathogenesis and clinical progress of occult coronary artery disease.- 7. ECG and stress testing in the diagnosis of occult atherosclerotic disease of the coronary arteries.- 8. Use of Holier monitoring in occult coronary artery disease.- 9. Radionuclide techniques in the diagnosis and assessment of occult coronary artery disease.- 10. Echocardiography in the diagnosis and assessment of occult coronary artery disease.- 11. Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis and assessment of occult coronary artery disease.- 12. Prognosis and management of occult coronary artery disease.- 13. Occult myocardial infarction.- Four: Occult atherosclerotic disease of the aorta and arteries of the lower limbs.- 14. Epidemiology of occult atherosclerosis in the lower limbs.- 15. Occult aortic aneurysm.- 16. Occult atherosclerotic disease of arteries of the lower limb — incidence, pathophysiology, diagnosis and assessment.- 17. The detection of occult peripheral arterial disease using the one-minute exercise test.- 18. The management of occult atherosclerosis in arteries of the lower limbs.- Five: Occult atherosderotic disease of the renal and mesenteric arteries.- 19. Occult atherosclerotic involvement of the renal vasculature-pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and investigations contributing to management.- 20. Investigations of mesenteric and renal arteriosclerotic disease.- Six: New techniques, combined lesions and prevention.- 21. Use of DNA technology in the diagnosis of occult atherosclerotic disease.- 22. Occult cardiovascular atherosderotic disease in the diabetic.- 23. Who should be investigated for occult atherosderotic disease?.- 24. Prevention of occult atherosderotic disease.