Obesity is an increasing problem on a global scale, and strategies for its prevention involve experts from many disciplines including nutritionists, physicians, policy-makers and public health professionals. This book covers the latest advances in obesity development, management and prevention with specific focus on dietary interventions. Part one covers the development of obesity and key drivers for its continuation and increase. Part two looks at the role of specific dietary components in obesity management, and part three discusses the role of behavioural factors such as eating patterns in managing and preventing obesity. Part four focuses on structured dietary interventions for obesity treatment, and part five looks at public interventions and consumer issues.
* List of contributors* Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition* Preface* Introduction: an overview of the key drivers of obesity and their influence on diet*1 Introduction*2 Behavioural factors*3 Environmental and structural factors*4 Biological factors*5 Summary and conclusions * Part One: General issues*1: Trends in understanding patterns of obesity and health outcomes*1.1 Introduction*1.2 The importance of abdominal obesity*1.3 Global trends in obesity*1.4 Economic development and obesity*1.5 Social class differences in obesity*1.6 Obesity in women and its implications for maternal and infant health*1.7 Childhood obesity*1.8 Conclusions *2: Overview of the key current population-level strategies used to prevent obesity*2.1 Introduction*2.2 Physical activity strategies*2.3 Food and beverage strategies*2.4 School strategies*2.5 Healthcare and workplace strategies*2.6 Messaging strategies*2.7 Conclusion: integrating approaches * Part Two: The role of different dietary components in obesity management*3: The role of high sugar foods and sugar-sweetened beverages in weight gain and obesity*3.1 Introduction*3.2 Sugar in our food supply*3.3 Biological mechanisms for some effects of sugar in beverages*3.4 Randomized clinical trials and longitudinal cohort studies link intake of sugar-sweetened beverages to the risk of obesity*3.5 Fruit juice and weight gain*3.6 Future trends *4: The impact of fruit and vegetable intake on weight management*4.1 Introduction*4.2 Importance of fruits and vegetables (FV)*4.3 FV and obesity prevention*4.4 Future trends *5: High protein diets in obesity management and weight control*5.1 Introduction*5.2 Internationally popular higher-protein diets*5.3 The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Total Wellbeing Diet*5.4 Evidence from meta-analyses and selected randomised control trials for the efficacy of higher-protein diets for weight control and metabolic health*5.5 Potential risks of high protein dietary patterns*5.6 Strategies to improve compliance to higher protein diets*5.7 Conclusions *6: Low-fat diets in obesity management and weight control*6.1 Introduction: overview of dietary fat and body weight*6.2 Total fat: mechanisms for association with body weight regulation*6.3 Type of fat: biological mechanisms for effects on energy balance*6.4 Sustainability of weight loss on low-fat diets*6.5 Conclusions*6.6 Future trends *7: The 'Mediterranean diet' and weight management*7.1 Introduction: the Mediterranean diet and other dietary patterns in the context of obesity*7.2 Definition of a Mediterranean dietary pattern*7.3 Epidemiological evidence on Mediterranean diet and weight management*7.4 Dietary and lifestyle intervention based on Mediterranean diet*7.5 Conclusions and future trends *8: Breastfeeding and weight in mothers and infants*8.1 Introduction*8.2 Energetic cost of breastfeeding*8.3 Postpartum weight change*8.4 Breastfeeding benefits for infants*8.5 Commentary on studies into the effect of breastfeeding on the weight of mothers and infants*8.6 Future trends * Part Three: The role of eating patterns and other behavioural factors in obesity management*9: The role of dietary energy density in weight management*9.1 Introduction*9.2 Energy density explained*9.3 Controlled studies demonstrate the influence of dietary energy density on satiety, satiation, and energy intake*9.4 Dietary energy density and weight management*9.5 Strategies to reduce dietary energy density*9.6 Future trends*9.8 Acknowledgements *10: Controlling appetite and food intake by regulating eating frequency and timing*10.1 Introduction*10.2 The relationship between motivation to eat and eating behaviour*10.3 Eating frequency and energy balance - observational studies of free-living adults consuming self-selected diets*10.4 Eating frequency and energy balance - intervention studies*10.5 Eating frequency and energy balance - controlled feeding studies*10.6 Small inter-meal ingestive events*10.7 Timing of eating within a habitual diurnal rhythm*10.8 Timing of eating and disruption of diurnal rhythms*10.9 Summary and future trends *11: Managing food portion size and its effect on weight control*11.1 Introduction: trends in food portion sizes*11.2 Effects of food portion size on energy intake*11.3 Explanations for the effects of portion size on energy intake*11.4 Environmental strategies influencing portion control behaviors*11.5 Self-regulation strategies to control portion sizes*11.6 Summary and conclusions*11.7 Acknowledgement *12: Eating in response to external cues*12.1 Introduction*12.2 Effects of food cues*12.3 Potential moderators influencing responding to food cues*12.4 How plentiful food cues affect dieters/overweight individuals*12.5 Factors influencing overweight/obese people and restrained eaters to respond more to salient food cues*12.6 Psychological processes governing eating behavior*12.7 Implications for obesity management *13: The interaction of diet and physical activity in managing obesity*13.1 Introduction*13.2 The independent and combined roles of physical activity and diet in prevention of weight gain*13.3 Physical activity and diet during weight reduction programmes*13.4 The roles of physical activity and diet in maintenance of reduced body weight*13.5 Conclusions * Part Four: Structured dietary interventions in the treatment of obesity*14: Defined energy deficit diets for the treatment of obesity*14.1 Introduction*14.2 History of defined energy prescriptions*14.3 Terminology and definitions*14.4 Estimating total energy requirements*14.5 Magnitude of energy deficit*14.6 Practical worked example of prescribed energy calculations*14.7 Conclusion *15: Meal replacements for the treatment of obesity*15.1 Introduction*15.2 Very low calorie diet (VLCD) versus partial meal replacement or controlled diet*15.3 Meal replacement as part of a low calorie diet (LCD) versus conventional diet*15.4 Type 2 diabetes*15.5 Composition of meal replacements*15.6 Summary *16: Very-low-calorie diets (VLCDs) for the treatment of obesity*16.1 Introduction*16.2 Indications and contraindications for the use of very-low-calorie diets (VLCDs)*16.3 How to use VLCDs*16.4 Efficacy of VLCDs*16.5 Safety of VLCDs*16.6 Monitoring required during the diet*16.7 Future trends *17: Commercial weight loss programs and their effectiveness in managing obesity*17.1 Introduction*17.2 Commonly available commercial weight loss programs*17.3 Efficacy of commercial weight loss programs: a summary of available evidence*17.4 Internet-based weight loss programs*17.5 The cost-effectiveness of commercial weight loss programs*17.6 Applications in the treatment of overweight and obesity*17.7 Conclusions *18: Popular diets and over-the-counter dietary aids and their effectiveness in managing obesity*18.1 Introduction: why diets are best sellers*18.2 Claims that 'the science is wrong'*18.3 All or nothing approaches*18.4 Claims to more moderate diets*18.5 Unconventional diets*18.6 Evaluation of promised time-scales*18.7 Evaluation of claims to simplicity*18.8 Over-the-counter weight loss aids*18.9 Discussion*18.10 Sourcing unbiased information * Part Five: Government and industry interventions in the prevention of obesity*19: Regulatory strategies for preventing obesity and improving public health*19.1 Introduction*19.2 Restricting child-targeted food marketing*19.3 Improving the school environment*19.4 Food and beverage taxes*19.5 Nutrition labeling*19.6 Limiting portion sizes of sugar-sweetened beverages*19.7 Conclusion *20: Fiscal strategies to influence diet and weight management*20.1 Introduction*20.2 Evidence to support fiscal strategies as an intervention*20.3 Evidence for differential effects of fiscal strategies*20.4 Evidence for cost-effectiveness of fiscal interventions*20.5 Evidence for interplay with other interventions*20.6 Existing strategies and policies in place*20.7 Politics and practicalities of taxing unhealthy food*20.8 Conclusion *21: Consumer responses to government dietary guidelines in the management and prevention of obesity*21.1 Introduction*21.2 History of dietary guidelines*21.3 Effectiveness of dietary guidelines in preventing obesity*21.4 Effectiveness of dietary guidelines in promoting healthier food choices*21.5 Effectiveness of dietary guidelines in promoting dietary behaviour change*21.6 Conclusion *22: The impact of marketing of 'junk' foods on children's diet and weight*22.1 Introduction*22.2 Extent of children's exposure to food and beverage marketing*22.3 International policy to reduce the impact of unhealthy food and beverage marketing to children*22.4 Food marketing effects on food consumption and nutrition and weight outcomes*22.5 Future trends *23: Front-of-pack and point-of-purchase labelling schemes designed for obesity prevention*23.1 Introduction*23.2 Definitions and scope*23.3 Current status of front-of-pack and point-of-purchase labelling schemes*23.4 Impact of front-of-pack and point-of-purchase labelling schemes and interventions involving such schemes*23.5 Future trends in front-of-pack and point-of-purchase labelling schemes * Index