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Immunologic Defects in Laboratory Animals 2
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Tiselius demonstrated that the immunologically active components of immune sera migrated electrophoretically in the gamma globulin region. His findings illuminated the classic observations of Jenner regarding development of resistance to infection, and those of von Pirquet, Pasteur, and Arthus regarding the transfer and specificity of resistance. Conceptual integration of these observations provided the impetus for the present modern era of immunology. Subsequent to Tiselius's work, multiple, rapid advances have occurred in the study of congenital and acquired immune deficiency states in mice, chickens, and humans. These studies have readily demonstrated that the immunologic ability of an organ­ ism to protect itself from environmental influences is a prerequisite for survival. Indeed, this necessity for protection from microenvironmental influences has promoted the evolu­ tionary development of immunologic diversification, namely, host dependence upon a sophisticated, multifaceted network of cells and effector mechanisms responsible for the clearance and neutralization of toxins and potentially harmful pathogens. The obligate dependence of animals upon the functional integrity of their immunologic systems is illus­ trated by the ready invasion of ubiquitous organisms when the host is in a state of immune defense derangement. Nevertheless, derangements in immune function can range from par­ tial to complete and can be compatible with survival. The consequences of such derange­ ments run the gamut from subclinical disease to inevitable mortality.


Contents:

VII. Complex Defects.- 1 Autoimmune Thyroiditis in Obese-Strain Chickens.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Serology and Thyroid Pathology.- 3. Defects in the Thyroid Gland May Be a Predisposing Factor in the Autoimmune Thyroiditis of OS Chickens.- 4. Evidence for an Abnormal Immunologic System.- 5. Relationship between the Major Histocompatibility Complex (B) and Autoimmune Thyroiditis.- 6. Summary.- References.- 2 Lethargic Mice.- 1. Description of the Mutant and Its Neurologic Symptoms.- 1.1. Physical Appearance.- 1.2. Growth and Body Weight.- 1.3. Mortality.- 1.4. Body Temperature and Its Relation to Cold Exposure.- 1.5. Stress Susceptibility.- 1.6. Fertility and Sexual Maturity.- 1.7. Neurologic Abnormalities of the Mutant.- 2. Light Microscopic Studies.- 2.1. The Submaxillary Gland.- 2.2. The Adrenal Gland.- 2.3. The Urinary System.- 2.4. The Reproductive Organs.- 2.5. The Liver and Gallbladder.- 2.6. The Skin.- 3. Electrophysiologic Studies on Peripheral Nerves.- 4. Pathologic Changes in Lymphoid Organs.- 4.1. Organ Weight Studies.- 4.2. Hematologic Studies.- 4.3. Morphologic Studies.- 5. Deficiencies in Cellular Immunity.- 5.1. Skin Transplantation.- 5.2. Graft-versus-Host Reaction.- 6. Humoral Immunity.- 6.1. Serum Immunoglobulins.- 6.2. Serum Electrophoresis.- 7. Lymphocyte Kinetics by Autoradiography.- 8. Conclusions.- References.- 3 Immunologic and Genetic Aspects of Aleutian Disease.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Genetics.- 1.2. Clinical Manifestations.- 1.3. Diagnosis.- 2. Pathology.- 3. Aleutian Disease Virus.- 3.1. Etiology.- 3.2. In Vivo Viral Replication.- 3.3. In Vitro Viral Replication.- 3.4. Physicochemical Characteristics.- 4. Immune Response of Normal and Aleutian Disease-Affected Mink.- 4.1. Immunoglobulins of Normal Mink.- 4.2. Immune Response of Normal Mink.- 4.3. Immunoglobulins of AD-Affected Mink.- 4.4. Immune Response of AD-Affected Mink.- 4.5. Unanswered Questions.- 5. Genetic Effects on Aleutian Disease.- 5.1. Host Effects.- 5.2. Persistent and Nonpersistent Infections.- 5.3. Unanswered Questions.- 6. Pathogenesis.- 6.1. Vasculitis and Glomerulitis.- 6.2. Ilypergammaglobulinemia.- 6.3. Unanswered Questions.- 7. Summary.- References.- 4 The Pathogenesis of Autoimmunity in New Zealand Mice.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Natural Life History and Pathology of NZ Mice.- 2.1. The NZB Strain.- 2.2. (NZB × NZW)F1 (B/W) Hybrids.- 3. Autoantibody Production.- 3.1. Antierythrocyte Autoantibodies.- 3.2. Antinuclear Autoantibodies.- 3.3. Natural Thymocytotoxic Autoantibody.- 3.4. Other Autoantibodies.- 4. Genetic Factors.- 5. Viral Factors.- 6. Immunologic Manipulations.- 6.1. Thymectomy.- 6.2. Splenectomy.- 6.3. Transfer of Aíttoimmune Disease.- 7. Cell-Mediated Immune Responses and T-Cell Subsets.- 8. Humoral Immune Responses and B-Cell Subsets.- 9. Pathogenesis.- 10. Modifiers of Disease.- 11. Summary.- References.- 5 Hemopoietic Abnormalities in New Zealand Black and Motheaten Mice.- 1. Introduction.- 2. New Zealand Black Mice.- 2.1. Stem-Cell Abnormalities.- 2.2. Myeloid Progenitor-Cell Abnormalities.- 2.3. B-Lymphocyte Abnormalities.- 3. Motheaten Mice.- 3.1. Genetics and Pathology.- 3.2. B-Lymphocyte Abnormalities.- 3.3. T-Lymphocyte Abnormalities.- 3.4. Nonlymphoid Cell Abnormalities.- 4. Synthesis and Conclusions.- References.- 6 Lymphoproliferation (lpr) and Other Single-Locus Models for Murine Lupus.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Development of MRL Substrains.- 3. Genetics.- 3.1. Autosomal Recessive Gene, lpr.- 3.2. MRL Substrains.- 3.3. Other Congenic Inbred Strains with lpr.- 4. Clinical Features.- 4.1. Longevity.- 4.2. Lymphoproliferation.- 4.3. Swollen Feet.- 5. Pathology.- 5.1. Lymph Nodes.- 5.2. Thymus.- 5.3. Kidney.- 5.4. Vascular System.- 5.5. Lungs.- 5.6. Joints.- 6. Serum Factors.- 6.1. Serum Proteins.- 6.2. Autoantibodies.- 6.3. Complement.- 6.4. Immune Complexes.- 7. Immunologic Mechanisms.- 7.1. B-Cell Frequency and Markers.- 7.2. T-Cell Frequency and Markers.- 7.3. Immunocompetency of B Cells.- 7.4. Immunocompetency of T Cells.- 7.5. Natural Killer Cells.- 7.6. Adherent Cells.- 8. Viral Studies.- 8.1. Endogenous Retroviruses.- 9. Cell Transfer Studies.- 9.1. Congenic MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr and + / +.- 9.2. Strain BXSB.- 10. Therapy.- 10.1. X Irradiation.- 10.2. Cell Replacement Therapy.- 10.3. Thymectomy.- 10.4. Thymic Hormones.- 10.5. Prostaglandins.- 10.6. Androgen Treatment.- 11. Other Single-Locus Models.- 11.1. Strain BXSB and Its Y Chromosome.- 11.2. Mutant Gene gld.- References.- 7 Canine Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Incidence of SLE in Dogs.- 3. Clinical Findings in Canine SLE.- 4. Serologic Findings in Canine SLE.- 5. Pathologic Findings in Canine SLE.- 6. Virologic Findings in Canine SLE.- 7. Genetic Findings in Canine SLE.- 8. A Genetic Hypothesis.- References.- 8 Combined Immunodeficiency of Arabian Foals.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Clinical Findings.- 2.1. Hematology.- 2.2. Onset of Infections and Time to Death.- 3. Analysis of B-Lymphocyte Function.- 3.1. Serum Immunoglobulin Class Measurement.- 3.2. Evaluation of B Lymphocytes.- 3.3. Results of Immunization.- 4. Analysis of T-Lymphocyte Function.- 4.1. Lymphocyte Proliferation Assays.- 4.2. Delayed Hypersensitivity Skin Tests.- 5. Analysis of Other Host Defense Systems.- 5.1. Complement.- 5.2. Neutrophil and Monocyte Function.- 6. Histopathologic Changes in Lymphoid Tissues.- 6.1. Absence of Lymphoid Structures in Spleen and Lymph Nodes.- 6.2. Thymic Hypoplasia.- 7. Criteria for Diagnosis of CID in Foals.- 8. Documentation of Autosomal Recessive Inheritance.- 9. Studies on the Biochemical Basis of the Defect.- 9.1. Presence of Adenosine Deaminase.- 9.2. Evaluation of Purine Metabolism.- 10. Immunotherapy.- 10.1. General Considerations.- 10.2. Reconstitution with Fetal Thymus and Liver Cells.- 10.3. Other Treatment Methods.- 11. Availability of Affected Foals.- 12. Discussion of Future Research Possibilities.- References.- VIII. Defects in Effector Pathways.- 9 Complement Deficiencies of Laboratory Animals.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Well-Studied Deficiency States.- 2.1. C4 Deficiency in Guinea Pigs.- 2.2. C5 Deficiency in Mice.- 2.3. C6 Deficiency in Rabbits.- 3. Other Deficiency States.- 3.1. C1 Deficiency in Chickens.- 3.2. C4 Deficiency in Rats.- 3.3. C6 Deficiency in Hamsters.- 4. Summary.- References.- 10 Defects in Murine Responsiveness to Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide: The C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr Strains.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Origin and Structure of LPS.- 3. Biological Activities of LPS.- 4. Structure-Function Correlation of LPS Biological Activities.- 5. Genetically Determined Nonresponsiveness to LPS.- 5.1. Genetics and Strain Distribution of LPS Nonresponsiveness.- 5.2. Biological Activities Affected by the LPS Gene.- 6. Bacterial Lipoprotein Mitogens and Their Effects in LPS-Nonresponder Mice.- 7. Speculations on the Mechanism of Action of LPS.- References.- IX, Modification of Immune Responsiveness in Gnotobiotic Environments.- 11 Host Defense Mechanisms in Gnotobiotic Animals.- 1. Introduction.- 2. General Characteristics of the Germfree Animal.- 2.1. Lymphatic Tissue in Germfree Animals.- 2.2. Radiobiology.- 2.3. Aging and Carcinogenesis.- 2.4. Gnotobiotic Animals and the Study of Disease.- 2.5. Autoimmunity.- 3. The Colostrum-Deprived Piglet.- 3.1. Immunologically “Virgin” Animal.- 3.2. Complement Receptor-Bearing Lymphocytes.- 3.3. Polyclonal B-Cell Activators.- 3.4. Membrane-Bound Enzymes of Lymphoid Tissues.- 3.5. “Natural” Antibody.- 3.6. Natural Killer Cells.- 3.7. Radiobiology.- 3.8. Morphology of Lymphoid Organs.- 3.9. Conclusion.- 4. Germfree Mouse.- 4.1. Serum Proteins of the Germfree Mouse.- 4.2. Germfree Nude Mouse.- 5. Germfree Rat.- 6. Germfree Guinea Pig.- 7. Germfree Rabbit.- 8. Germfree Primates.- 9. Germfree Dogs.- 10. Germfree Chickens.- 11. Conclusion.- References.- X. Cryopreservation of Embryos for Strain Preservation.- 12 Physiological Basis of the Freezing of Mammalian Embryos.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Cryobiology of Mammalian Embryos.- 2.1. Introduction.- 2.2. Solutions at Subzero Temperatures.- 2.3. Cell Responses to Altered Solutions and Temperatures.- 2.4. Responses of Ova and Embryos to Freezing.- 2.5. Other Aspects of Embryo Freezing.- 3. Embryological Aspects of Embryo Freezing.- 3.1. Introduction.- 3.2. Species Differences.- 3.3. Mouse Strain Differences.- 3.4. In Vitro Fertilization of Frozen-Thawed Ova.- 3.5. Culture and Transfer of Frozen-Thawed Embryos.- 4. Summary.- References.


PRODUCT DETAILS

ISBN-13: 9781468486544
Publisher: Springer (Springer US)
Publication date: November, 2012
Pages: 402
Weight: 765g
Availability: POD
Subcategories: Veterinary Medicine

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