Currently 925 million people are undernourished and 195 million children under five years of age are stunted. At the same time, over 1 billion people are overweight and obese in both the developed and developing world. Diseases previously associated with affluence, such as cancer, diabetes and cardio-vascular disease, are on the rise. Food system-based approaches to addressing these problems that could enhance food availability and diet quality through local production and agricultural biodiversity often fall outside the traditional scope of nutrition, and have been under-researched. As a consequence, there remains insufficient evidence to support well-defined, scalable agricultural biodiversity interventions that can be linked to improvements in nutrition outcomes. Agricultural biodiversity is important for food and nutritional security, as a safeguard against hunger, a source of nutrients for improved dietary diversity and quality, and strengthening local food systems and environmental sustainability. This book explores the current state of knowledge on the role of agricultural biodiversity in improving diets, nutrition and food security.
Using examples and case studies from around the globe, the book explores current strategies for improving nutrition and diets and identifies key research and implementation gaps that need to be addressed to successfully promote the better use of agricultural biodiversity for rural and urban populations and societies in transition.
Foreword Braulio Dias (Executive Secretary, Convention on Biological Diversity) Foreword Olivier De Schutter (United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food) Preface Emile Frison (Director General, Bioversity International) and Barbara Burlingame (Principal Officer, Nutrition and Consumer Protection Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, FAO) Introduction: Agricultural Biodiversity, Diverse Diets and Improving Nutrition Danny Hunter (Bioversity International) and Jessica Fanzo (World Food Programme - WFP) Part 1: The State of Agricultural Biodiversity and Nutrition - Overviews, Models and Themes 1. Harnessing Biodiversity: from Diets to Landscapes Fabrice DeClerck (Bioversity International) 2. Overview of Agricultural Biodiversity and its Importance to Nutrition and Health Vernon H. Heywood (School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading) 3. The Role of Livestock and Livestock Diversity in Sustainable Diets Irene Hoffmann and Roswitha Baumung (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations - FAO) 4. Valuing Aquatic Biodiversity in Agricultural Landscapes Matthias Halwart (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations -FAO) Part 2: Creating an Enabling Environment 5. Lessons from Sub-Saharan Africa - Delivery Mechanisms for Mobilizing Agricultural Biodiversity for Improved Food and Nutrition Security Herve B. D. Bisseleua and Amadou Ibra Niang (The MDG Centre - West and Central Africa) 6. Sustained and Integrated Promotion of Local, Traditional Food Systems for Nutrition Security Ifeyironwa Francisca Smith (Lanrify Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Consulting Inc.) 7. Linking Biodiversity and Nutrition: Research Methodologies Roseline Remans and Sean Smukler (The Earth Institute at Columbia University and the University of British Columbia) 8. Successes and Pitfalls of Linking Nutritionally Promising Andean Crops to Markets Michael Hermann (Crops for the Future) 9. Biodiversity's Contribution to Dietary Diversity: Magnitude, Meaning and Measurement Peter R. Berti (HealthBridge) and Andrew D. Jones (Cornell University) 10. "Opening a can of Mopane Worms?" : Can Cross-Sectoral Partnerships Leverage Agricultural Biodiversity for Better Quality Diets? Margaret McEwan, Gordon Prain (International Potato Center - CIP) and Danny Hunter (Bioversity International) Part 3: Case Studies: Agricultural Biodiversity and Food Based Approaches to Improving Nutrition Case Study 1. Traditional Foods of the Pacific: Go Local, a Case Study in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia Lois Englberger and Eminher Johnson (Island Food Community of Pohnpei) Case Study 2. The Role of Integrated Homegardens and Local, Neglected and Underutilized Plant Species in Food Security in Nepal and Meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Roshan Pudasaini (LI-BIRD), Sajal Sthapit (LI-BIRD), Rojee Suwal (LI-BIRD) and Bhuwon Sthapit (Bioversity International) Case Study 3. Diversity of Indigenous Fruit Trees and their Contribution to Nutrition and Livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa: Examples from Kenya and Cameroon Katja Kehlenbeck, Ebenezar Asaah and Ramni Jamnadass (World Agroforestry Centre - ICRAF) Case Study 4. Fish Diversity and Fish Consumption in Bangladesh Shakuntala Haraksingh Thilsted (The WorldFish Center) Case Study 5. The Introduction of Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato (OFSP) in Mozambican Diets: A Marginal Change to Make a Major Difference Jan Low, Ricardo Labarta, Maria Andrade, and Mary Arimond (University of California Davis) Case Study 6. Diversifying Diets: Using Indigenous Vegetables to Improve Profitability, Nutrition and Health in Africa C. Ojiewo, A. Tenkouano, J. d'A. Hughes and J.D.H. Keatinge (AVRDC - The World Vegetable Center) Case Study 7. Diversifying Diets: Using Agricultural Biodiversity to Improve Nutrition and Health in Asia Jennifer Nielsen, Nancy Haselow, Akoto Osei and Zaman Talukder (Helen Keller International) Case Study 8. Minor Millets in India: A Neglected Crop goes Mainstream Nadia Bergamini, Stefano Padulosi (Bioversity International), S. Bala Ravi (MSSRF, India) and Nirmala Yenagi (University of Dharward, India) Case Study 9. Local Food and Dietary Diversity: Farmers Markets and Community Gardens in Melbourne, Australia Kelly Donati, Christopher Taylor and Craig Pearson (University of Melbourne) Case Study 10. "Please Pick Me" - How Incredible Edible Todmorden is Repurposing the Commons for Open Source Food and Agricultural Biodiversity John Paull (University of Oxford) Case Study 11. Cultivating Health with Leafy Vegetables in Coastal Tanzania Petra Bakewell-Stone (University of Kent) Case Study 12. The Food Acquisition Programme in Brazil: Contributions to Biodiversity, Food Security and Nutrition Catia Grisa and Claudia Job Schmitt (Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro - CPDA/UFRRJ)