The history of science, technology, and medicine has always occupied a special place in Indian history through the ages. Its significance, especially from a socio-cultural perspective, cannot be ignored. In recognition of the importance of this subject, the 61st session of the Indian History Congress, held in Kolkata in January 2001, organized a special panel on the history of health conditions and the progress of medicine in India. The present volume, edited and introduced by Deepak Kumar, brings together the papers presented at this panel, along with some fresh contributions. The essays comprising this volume, in presenting the history of disease and medicine in ancient, medieval and colonial India, seek to achieve a balance between social constructivism and historical relativism.