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Cerebral Cortex
Functional Properties of Cortical Cells
Series: Cerebral Cortex
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Volume 2 of Cerebral Cortex continues our policy of dealing with the individual elements of the cerebral cortex before moving on in subsequent volumes to a consideration of the details of the various functional areas. Volume 1 of the treatise dealt with the morphology of cortical neurons, and Volume 2 continues this theme to some extent by including chapters devoted to the morphology of cortical neuroglial cells, of immunocytochemically labeled neurons, and of in­ tracellularly i~ected neurons. However, the major emphasis of this volume and of Volume 3, which will follow it, is on the functional characteristics of cortical neurons and neuroglial cells, particularly those of transmitter and receptor iden­ tity and of electrophysiological uniqueness. Volume 2 emphasizes these char­ acteristics in relation to the intrinsic cortical elements; Volume 3 will continue this and add chapters on the afferent and efferent systems of the cortex. Together, Volumes 2 and 3 will cover all of the transmitters, receptors, and related compounds that have so far been discovered in the cerebral cortex. It is the interrelations among the neuronal elements expressing these materials that determine the functional operations of the cerebral cortex, and the necessity for understanding how the appropriate cooperation between the neuronal ele­ ments is achieved is highlighted by Sir John C. Eccles's introductory chapter on "The Cerebral Neocortex: A Theory of Its Operation.


1 The Cerebral Neocortex: A Theory of Its Operation.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Modular Concept of the Neocortex.- 3. The Modular Operation of the Neocortex.- 4. Inputs into a Module of the Neocortex (Szentágothai, 1983).- 5. The Neuronal Structure of the Module (Szentágothai, 1983).- 5.1. Excitatory Synaptic Actions (Szentágothai, 1983).- 5.2. Inhibitory Synaptic Actions (Szentágothai, 1983).- 5.3. The Special Design Features of a Cortical Module.- 6. Pattern Generation in the Neocortex.- 7. The Function of Horizontal Fibers (Jones and Powell, 1970a).- 8. Patterns in Cognitive Memory.- 9. A Neuronal Model of Memory Built on the Role of Calcium in Long-Term Potentiation.- 10. Generation of Module Patterns in Relation to Memory and Retrieval.- 11. A Simple Model of Cognitive Memory.- 12. Self-Consciousness and Memory.- 13. Special Design Features of the Neocortex.- 14. References.- I. Transmitters.- 2 Neurotransmitters in Cerebral Cortex: A General Account.- 1. Growth of Ideas about Cortical Neurotransmitters.- 1.1. Early Period.- 1.2. Developments in the 1950s.- 1.3. New Transmitters and Modes of Action Are Indicated by Iontophoretic Studies.- 2. Present Situation.- 2.1. New Techniques.- 2.2. GABA.- 2.3. L-Glutamate.- 2.4. Acetylcholine.- 2.5. Other Transmitters or Modulators.- 3. Conclusions.- 4. References.- 3 GABA Neurons in the Cerebral Corte.- 1. Introduction.- 2. GABA Terminals.- 2.1. Laminar Distribution.- 2.2. Ultrastructural Characteristics.- 2.3. Synaptic Relationships.- 3. GABA Somata.- 3.1. Locations.- 3.2. General Morphological Characteristics.- 3.3. Probable Morphological Cell Types.- 4. Speculative Model of GABAergic Cortical Circuitry.- 5. References.- 4 Functional Considerations of the Operation of GABAergic Inhibitory Processes in the Visual Corte.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Intracortical Inhibition and GABAergic Synapses.- 3. Neuropharmacological Techniques for Evaluating the Function of GABAergic Synapses in the Visual Cortex.- 4. Influence of GABAergic Processes on Receptive Field Properties.- 4.1. Simple Cells.- 4.2. Complex Cells.- 4.3. Ocular Dominance.- 4.4. Length Preference.- 5. The Organization of Intracortical Inhibition: An Evaluation.- 5.1. Laterally Directed Inhibitory Interactions.- 5.2. Synaptic Basis.- 6. References.- 5 Glutamate and Aspartate as Transmitter Candidates for Systems of the Cerebral Cortex.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Glu and Asp as Transmitter Candidates in Corticofugal Pathways.- 2.1. Synthesis of Glu and Asp.- 2.2. Presence and Regional Distribution.- 2.3. Release and Collectibility.- 2.4. Postsynaptic Transmitter-Receptor Interactions.- 2.5. Inactivation and Uptake.- 2.6. Retrograde Migration of Transmitter-Related Compounds—Transmitter-Specific Retrograde Labeling of Pathways.- 2.7. Summary of Glu and Asp in Corticofugal Systems.- 3. Glu and Asp in Corticocortical and Transcallosal Systems.- 4. Glu and Asp in Afferent Pathways to the Cerebral Cortex.- 5. Glu and Asp as Transmitter Candidates for Local Elements in the Cerebral Cortex.- 6. Concluding Remarks.- 7. References.- 6 Peptide-Containing Neurons of the Cerebral Cortex.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide.- 3. Cholecystokinin.- 4. Somatostatin.- 5. Neuropeptide Y.- 6. Conclusion.- 7. References.- II. Receptors.- 7 Autoradiographic Localization of Receptor Sites in the Cerebral Cortex.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Evolution of Receptor Autoradiography.- 1.2. What Can We Learn from Receptor Localizations?.- 2. Methods.- 3. Receptor Localizations in the Neocortex.- 3.1. Receptors for Acetylcholine and Biogenic Amines.- 3.2. Receptors for Peptide Neurotransmitters.- 3.3. Receptors for Amino Acid Neurotransmitters.- 3.4. Other Receptors.- 4. Neurotransmitter-Specific Connections in the Cerebral Cortex.- 4.1. Correlation between Receptor Localization and Neurotransmitter-Specific Innervation.- 4.2. Possible Reasons for Areas of Apparent Discrepancy between Receptor Localization and Neurotransmitter-Specific Innervation.- 5. Conclusions.- 6. References.- III. Morphological Correlates.- 8 Physiological Properties of Identified Neurons.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Organization and Morphology of Cortical Neurons.- 2.1. Visual Cortex of the Cat.- 2.2. Visual Cortex of the Rat.- 3. Functional Properties of Neurons in the Visual Cortex.- 4. Functional Properties of Morphologically Identified Neurons.- 4.1. Visual Cortex of the Cat.- 4.2. Visual Cortex of the Rat.- 5. Concluding Remarks.- 6. References.- 9 Neuronal Circuits in Cat Striate Cortex.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Points of Entry of Thalamic Input to Cortex: The Location and Type of Recipient Cell.- 3. The Morphology of Physiologically Characterized LGN Afferents.- 4. Morphology and Physiological Characteristics of the Main Classes of Spiny Cells.- 5. Relation of Dendritic Morphology to Receptive Fields.- 6. Relay of Excitation through the Cortical Laminae: Some Speculations.- 6.1. The Number of Synapses Needed to Elicit an Action Potential.- 6.2. The Role of Patchy Connections.- 6.3. The Question of Who Talks to Whom.- 7. Cells with Smooth Dendrites: Morphology, Physiological Characteristics, and Possible Functional Role.- 7.1. Basket Cells.- 7.2. Integration of Basket Cells in the Cortical Circuitry.- 7.3. The Axoaxonic Cell.- 8. Conclusion.- 9. References.- 10 The Structure of Neuroglial Cells.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Neuroglial Cells: A Perspective.- 2.1. Astrocytes.- 2.2. Oligodendroglia.- 2.3. Microglia.- 3. Electron Microscopy.- 3.1. Astrocytes.- 3.2. Oligodendroglia.- 3.3. Microglia.- 4. Light Microscopy.- 4.1. Nissl-Stained Sections and Semithin Plastic Sections.- 4.2. Metallic Stains and Impregnation.- 5. Conclusion.- 6. References.


ISBN-13: 9781461566120
Publisher: Springer (Springer US)
Publication date: November, 2012
Pages: 354
Weight: 684g
Availability: POD
Subcategories: Neuroscience
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