Biomedical nanosensors play a central role in the development of diagnostics and therapeutics for early detection and treatment of diseases. Bringing a nanoscale perspective to sensing is expected to allow interrogation of biological systems, detection of ultra small concentration of biomolecules, ions, and molecular interactions, exploration of cellular mechanisms, and integration of nanosensors into many other devices, including implantable devices. In this book we will specifically address nanomaterials, constituting nanoparticles, nanowires, and nanotubes of inorganic as well as polymeric composition of nano and micro scale dimensions as sensing and therapeutic agents since these constitute a major direction in nanomedicine. Selected technologies involving single molecule and single particle methods for tracking are also addressed.
Biomolecular Components of a Biosensor: Fundamentals, Kaustubh D. Bhalerao and Goutam J. Nistala What Makes a Biosensor a Biosensor? The Recognition Layer Bioconjugation Conclusions and Future Outlook Macromolecule-Imprinted Polymers: Antibody/Receptor Mimics for Protein Recognition and Catalysis, Yun Peng, David W. Britt, Marie K. Walsh, and Timothy Doyle Introduction Applications Perspective Chemical and Biological Sensing and Imaging Using Plasmonic Nanoparticles and Nanostructures, Qi Wang and Chenxu Yu Introduction Theoretical Background of nanoSPR Synthesis, Fabrication, and Functionalization of Plasmonic Nanostructures Application of nanoSPR in Chemical and Biological Sensing Conclusions and Future Perspectives Surface-Raman Scattering for Medical Applications, Mustafa Culha Introduction Introduction to Raman Scattering and Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Applications of SERS in Biomedical Sciences and Medicine Concluding Remarks and Future Outlook Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications of Carbon Nanotubes, Balaji Panchapakesan, Thomas Burkhead, Ben King, Peng Xu, James Loomis, and Eric Wickstrom Introduction Nanotechnology for Cancer Carbon Nanotubes Electronic Properties of Carbon Nanotubes Optical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes Biological Applications of Carbon Nanotubes Bioelectronic Devices Based on Carbon Nanotubes Applications of Nanotube Transistors for Detecting Circulating Cancer Cells Integrated Molecular Targeting and Selective Photothermal Therapy of Breast Cancer Cells Using Carbon Nanotubes Conclusions and Future Applications of Carbon Nanotubes for Biomedical Graphene for Biosensing Applications, Romaneh Jalilian, Luis A. Jauregui, Kyuwan Lee, Yong P. Chen, and Joseph Irudayaraj Introduction Fabrication of Graphene-Based Materials and Devices Basic Properties of Graphene Biosensing Applications of Graphene Closing Remarks and Future Work Single-Molecule Fluorescence Spectroscopy Techniques for Biomedicine, Jose M. Moran-Mirabal, Harold G. Craighead, and Larry P. Walker Single-Molecule Fluorescence Spectroscopy Fundamentals Experimental Implementations of SMFS Techniques Observables Measured with SMFS Techniques Micro- and Nanostructured Surfaces for SMFS Micro- and Nanofluidic Slits and Channels Potential Biomedical SMFS Applications Particle Engineering for Inhalational Drug Delivery, Basma Ibrahim, Yan Yang, and Yoon Yeo Dry Particles for Inhalational Therapy Traditional Particle Manufacturing for Inhalational Drug Delivery NPs for Inhalational Drug Delivery Conclusions Devices and Sensors for Bioelectric Monitoringand Stimulation, Benjamin Moody, Mathew K. Zachek, and Gregory S. McCarty Introduction Electrode Basics Electrochemical Measurements Biosensor Electrodes Advances in Electrodes for Biological Measurements Applications in the Brain Applications to the Heart and Muscles Conclusion Microelectromechanical Systems for in vivo Therapeutics, Masaru P. Rao Introduction Advantageous Features of MEMS The MEMS "Tool Kit": Common MEMS Materials and Fabrication Techniques Selected Examples of Application Areas within in vivo Therapeutics In vivo Therapeutic MEMS Enabled by Titanium Micromachining Conclusions and Outlook Implantable Electrochemical Biosensors: A Perspective, Sridhar Govindarajan and Bella B. Manshian Introduction In vivo Monitoring - Challenges and Progress Conclusions Index