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Biological Responses in Cancer
Volume 1: Progress toward Potential Applications
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The series of volumes entitled Biological Responses in Cancer: Progress toward Potential Applications will provide information on approaches through which the interaction between neoplastic and normal cells may be modified. Each annual volume will contain contributions in areas where significant progress has been made. Topics to be dealt with include immunologic and host defense systems, control mechanisms of cell and population growth, cell differentiation, and cell transformation. The regulatory mech~sms controlling the interactions between normal and tumor cells may be immunologic in nature or they may relate to diverse biological characteristics of tumor and normal cells and their response to micro environmental factors. While the central question of tumor immunol­ ogy addresses the nature and uniqueness of tumor-associated antigens in humans, the identification of the stages of differentiation and functions of the various cell types involved in immunity is advancing rapidly. The de­ velopment of monoclonal antibody methodologies together with progress in the biochemical characterization of cell markers, cell separation, and mea­ surement of cell functions has significantly aided in the identification and quantitation of different cell types. Establishing the role of these cells in the regulation of human immune mechanisms offers a means for evaluating the status of the immune responses in cancer patients and for assessing the effects tumor and antitumor treatments may exert on their functionality, which, in turn, may alter the effects of antitumor treatments.


1 Cell-Surface Antigens in Acute Leukemia.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Methods of Identification of Leukemia-Associated Membrane Antigens.- 3. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Associated Membrane Antigens.- 3.1. T-Cell Antigens.- 3.2. Ia Antigen.- 3.3. Common Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Antigen (CALLA).- 3.4. B-Cell Antigens.- 3.5. 26,000-Dalton Surface Antigen.- 4. Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia-Associated Membrane Antigens.- 4.1. Identification of Myeloid Antigens with Polyclonal Antisera.- 4.2. Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for Myeloid Surface Antigens.- References.- 2 Suppressor Cells in Tumor-Host Interactions.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Immunoregulation and Suppressor T Cells.- 3. The Tumor-Bearing Host.- 3.1. Humoral and Cellular Immunodeficiency.- 3.2. Macrophage Functions and Natural Cytotoxicity.- 3.3. Other Changes.- 4. Suppressor Mechanisms in Tumor-Bearing Hosts.- 4.1. Suppressor Factors Produced by Tumors and Suppressor Serum Factors.- 4.2. Suppressor T Cells.- 5. Suppressor Cells in Human Cancer.- 6. Conclusions.- References.- 3 The Interleukins: Regulation of Lymphocyte Differentiation, Proliferation, and Functional Activation.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Interleukins.- 3. Interleukin 1.- 3.1. Initial Characterization.- 3.2. Superinduction and Purification of IL 1.- 3.3. Biological Effects of IL 1 on Lymphocytes.- 3.4. Biological Effects of IL 1 on Nonlymphoid Cells.- 4. Interleukin 2.- 4.1. Initial Observations.- 4.2. Cell Source of IL 2.- 4.3. T-Cell Lines Producing IL 2.- 4.4. Role of IL 1 in the Induction of IL 2 Synthesis.- 4.5. Possible Cell Cycle Dependence of IL 2 Production.- 4.6. Binding of IL 2 to Target T Cells.- 4.7. Biochemical Studies on IL 2.- 4.8. Preparation of Monoclonal Antibodies against IL 2.- 5. Interplay of Interleukins and Other Lymphokines.- 5.1. Lymphokine-Induced IL 1 Production.- 5.2. Generation of Cytotoxic Effector Cells.- 5.3. Antibody Synthesis.- 6. Therapeutic Potential of the Interleukins.- References.- 4 The Interaction of Human T-Cell Growth Factor with Normal and Neoplastic T Cells.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Purification and Biochemical Characterization of Human TCGF.- 2.1. TCGF Assays.- 2.2. Purification of Human TCGF.- 2.3. Biochemical Characteristics of Human TCGF.- 3. Culture Conditions for Generation of Human TCGF.- 3.1. General Considerations.- 3.2. The Cellular Origin of TCGF.- 3.3. Mitogens Effective in Production.- 3.4. Tissues Used for TCGF Production.- 3.5. Different Culture Conditions.- 3.6. Interfering Substances in Crude Conditioned Media: Removal of PHA.- 3.7. TCGF Activity: Lack of Correlation between [3H]-TdR Incorporation and Long-Term T-Cell Growth.- 4. Relationship between TCGF and Other Lymphokines.- 4.1. Nomenclature.- 4.2. Lymphocyte-Activating Factor.- 4.3. B-Lymphocyte-Stimulating Factors.- 4.4. Production of Hematopoietic Growth Factors.- 4.5. The Role of TCGF in Immune Reactivity.- 5. Development and Maintenance of Functional T-Cell Clones.- 5.1. T-Cell Activation: TCGF Receptors.- 5.2. Variable Growth of Human T Lymphocytes in TCGF: A “Crisis” Period.- 5.3. The Clonal Derivation of T-Cell Lines.- 5.4. Cytotoxic T Cells.- 5.5. Helper T-Cell Lines.- 5.6. Suppressor T-Cell Lines.- 5.7. The Effects of TCGF on Natural Killer Cells.- 5.8. In Vivo Function of Cloned T Cells and TCGF.- 6. Interaction of TCGF with Neoplastic T Cells.- 6.1. Role of TCGF in Growth of Neoplastic T Cells.- 6.2. Mature T-Cell Leukemia Cell Lines Produce and Respond to TCGF.- 6.3. Production of Hematopoietic Factors by Malignant Mature T Cells.- 6.4. Possible Role of TCGF in the Transformation of Mature T Cells.- 7. Isolation of a New Class Type-C Retrovirus from Human T Cells.- 7.1. Isolation and Characterization of Human T-Cell Leukemia—Lymphoma Virus.- 7.2. Susceptibility of T Cells to HTLV Infection.- 8. Concluding Remarks: The Functional Implications of TCGF.- References.- 5 Interferons: Biological Response Modification and Pharmacology.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Interferon System.- 3. Factors Influencing Cellular Activity.- 3.1. Interactions with the Cell Surface.- 3.2. Genetic Control of Interferon Action.- 3.3. Cell-Surface Alterations Resulting from Interferons.- 4 Immunomodulation.- 4.1. T Cells.- 4.2. NK Cells.- 4.3. K Cells.- 4.4. Macrophages.- 4.5. B Cells.- 4.6. Cell-Surface Characteristics of Immunologic Significance.- 4.7. Clinical Effects upon Immune Functions.- 5. Enzymatic Alterations.- 5.1. Interferon-Inducible Genes.- 5.2. Oligoadenylate Synthetase.- 5.3. Occurrence and Actions of 2-5A.- 5.4. 2-5A Synthetase Assays.- 5.5. Distribution and Induction of 2-5A Synthetase.- 5.6. 2?-Phosphodiesterase.- 5.7. Protein Kinase.- 5.8. Biological Applications of the Interferon-Induced Enzyme Assays.- 5.9. Regulatory Mechanisms in Actions of Interferons.- 6. Clinical Pharmacology.- 6.1. Interferon ?.- 6.2. Interferon ?.- 6.3. Distribution of Interferons.- 6.4. Metabolism.- 6.5. Interferons and the Cytochrome P-450 System.- 7. Conclusion.- References.- 6 Role of Thymosin and Other Thymic Hormones in T-Cell Differentiation.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Biochemical Characteristics of Thymosin.- 3. Biological Effects of Thymosin and Other Thymic Factors in Experimental Animal Models.- 3.1. Induction of T-Cell Markers.- 3.2. Induction of T-Cell Function.- 3.3. Experimental Models of Clinical Relevance.- 4. Biological Effects of Thymosin and Other Thymic Factors in Man.- 4.1. Induction of T-Cell Markers.- 4.2. Induction of T-Cell Functions.- 5. Concluding Remarks.- References.- 7 Host Factors Influencing the Growth and Spread of Tumors.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Regional Differences in Tumor Growth.- 2.1. Spontaneous Tumors.- 2.2. Carcinogen-Induced Tumors.- 2.3. Transplanted Tumors.- 2.4. Mechanisms Underlying Regional Differences in Tumor Growth.- 3. Regional Differences in Normal Tissue Growth and Function.- 3.1. Regional Differences in Immune Responsiveness.- 3.2. Regional Differences in Proliferative Activity.- 3.3. Regional Differences in Growth of Transplanted Normal Tissues.- 3.4. Topographical Aspects of Wound Healing.- 4. Host Factors Involved in Vascularization of Tumors.- 5. Inductive Tissue Interactions.- 6. Host Factors in Tumor Cell Seeding and Development.- 7. Other Host Factors Influencing Tumor Growth.- 8. General Comments.- References.- 8 The Biological Diversity of Malignant Neoplasms.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Biological Diversity of Metastatic Neoplasms.- 3. The Development and Progression of Metastasis.- 4. Implications of Phenotypic Diversity for Experimental Studies: Propagation of Heterogeneous Tumors Used to Evaluate Therapeutic Agents.- 5. Phenotypic Diversity of Neoplasms and the Challenge for Therapy.- 5.1. Variations in Drug Sensitivity.- 5.2. Variations in Immune Response.- 6. Circumvention of the Problem of Cellular Diversity.- 6.1. Use of Macrophages in Therapy of Heterogeneous Metastases.- 6.2. Stimulation of Tumoricidal Properties of Macrophages.- 7. Concluding Remarks.- References.


ISBN-13: 9781468478228
Publisher: Springer (Springer US)
Publication date: November, 2012
Pages: 306
Weight: 625g
Availability: POD
Subcategories: Oncology


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