Accuracy requirements in radiation oncology have been defined in multiple publications; however, these have been based on differing radiation technologies. In the meantime, the uncertainties in radiation dosimetry reference standards have been reduced and more detailed patient outcome data are available. No comprehensive literature on accuracy and uncertainties in radiotherapy has been published so far. The IAEA has therefore developed a new international consensus document on accuracy requirements and uncertainties in radiotherapy, to promote safer and more effective patient treatments. This publication addresses accuracy and uncertainty issues related to the vast majority of radiotherapy departments including both external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy. It covers clinical, radiobiological, dosimetric, technical and physical aspects.