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Therapeutic Use of Medicinal Plants and Their Extracts: Volume 1
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Main description:

This volume focuses on the importance of therapeutically active compounds of natural origin. Natural materials from plants, microbes, animals, marine organisms and minerals are important sources of modern drugs. Beginning with two chapters on the development and definition of the interdisciplinary field of pharmacognosy, the volume offers up-to-date information on natural and biosynthetic sources of drugs, classification of crude drugs, pharmacognosical botany, examples of medical application, WHO's guidelines and intellectual property rights for herbal products.




a. Pharmacognosy- a multidisciplinary science of crude drugs

b. Traditional and modern pharmacognosy

c. Modern trends in pharmacognosy


Defination, scope, importance and history of development of pharmacognosy

a. Defination, origin and scope of pharmacognosy

b. Subject matter of pharmacognosy

c. Importance of pharmacognosy in pharmacy

d. History of development of pharmacognosy

e. Pharmacognosist, epithecar, pharmacology, pharmacologist, pharmacy and pharmacist

f. Drug literature and publication


Medicinal, nonmedicinal, biopesticidic, colors and dye yielding plants; secondary metabolites and drug principles; medicinal plants in the systems of traditional medicine

a. Medicinal plants and their characteristics, secondary metabolites and drug principles

b. Factors affecting the production of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants

c. Contribution of medicinal plants to modern medicine

d. Nonmedicinal or poisonous, hallucinogenic, allergenic, teratogenic and other toxic plants

e. Biopesticides

f. Natural colors and dyes

g. Importance of drugs from natural sources

h. Use of herbal preparations in indigenous traditional systems of medicine and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM): Ayurveda, Unani, Homeopathy, Aromatherapy, Siddha, Yoga, Naturopathy, Folk medicine, Native North American medicine, Western herbal medicine

i. Use of medicinal plants in the traditional and complementary systems for treatment of some common ailments

j. Scientific basis of herbal medicine and its merits and demerits


Drugs, their natural, synthetic and biosynthetic sources

1. Drugs and crude drugs

2. Sources of drugs

a. Biological sources of drugs

i. Plant, animal and microbial sources

ii. Marine sources (metallic and non-metallic)

b. Mineral source- metallic, nonmetallic and miscellaneous sources

c. Geographical or habitat sources

d. New drug from microbiological conversion, aberrant synthesis in higher plants, cell, tissue and organ culture

e. Synthetic and biosynthetic sources


Classification of drugs, nutraceuticals, functional food and cosmeceuticals; proteins, peptides and enzymes as drugs

1.Classification of crude drugs

a. Alphabetical classification

b. Morphological classification- organized and unorganized drugs

c. Taxonomic classification

d. Pharmacological or therapeutic classification

e. Chemical or biogenetic classification and

f. Chemotaxonomical classification

2. Classification of modern drugs

3. Nutraceuticals, functional food and cosmeceuticals

4. Proteins, peptides and enzymes as drugs

5.Pharmacological and synergistic activities of herbal products


Pharmacognosical botany- taxonomy, morphology and anatomy of drug plants

a. Taxonomy of drug plants and their families

i. Systems of plant classification- artificial, natural and phylogenetic

ii.Plant taxa- Species, Genus, Family, Order, Class, Subdivision, Division and Kingdom

iii.Taxonomic divisions of the plant Kingdom- Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnospermophyta and Magnoliophyta; pharmacognostical importance the taxonomic groups

iv. Animal phyla and their useful products in traditional medicine

b.Morphology of different parts of medicinal plants- morphology of roots, stems, woods, barks, leaves, flowers and fruits

c. Structural organization of plants

i. The plant cell and cell contents- cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, endomembrane system, cell organelles

ii. The plant tissues and tissue systems- meristematic and permanent tissue, simple and complex tissue

iii. Secretory tissues and cell- glandular tissue, laticiferous tissue (latex cells and latex vessels)

d. Waste materials or ergastic substances

i. Solid substances-calcium oxalate, calcium carbonate, diosmin, hesperidin, silica

ii.Substances in solution in the cell sap- alkaloids and glycosides, tannins, essential oils, resins, gums and mucilage


Pharmacopoeia, herbal monographs and WHO's guide lines

a. Pharmacopoeia

b.Pharmacognostical research and development of herbal monographs in different countries

c. The aim of herbal monograph- quality, efficacy, safety of herbal products

b. WHO's guidelines for herbal monographs

c. Monographs of organized drugs

d. Monographs of unorganized drugs


Fibers, surgical dressings and bandages of natural origin

a. Fibers

i. Plant fibers

ii. Animal fibers

iii. Artificial or regenerated fibers

iv. Synthetic fibers, etc.

b. Surgical dressings

ii. Hydrogel dressing

iii. Alginate dressings

iv. Collagen dressing

v. Copmosite dressings

vi. The standard dressings of BPC, etc.

c. Bandages

i. Gauze bandage or common gauze roller bandage (circular, spiral, etc.)

ii. Compression bandage

iii. Triangular bandage

iv. Figure-of-eight bandage

v. Tube bandage, etc.


Production and trade of herbal drugs- cultivation, collection, storage and trade of crude drugs; herbal wealth and national economy

a. Cultivation < i. Field level cultivation of medicinal plants at commercial scale

b. Biotechnology and production of drug principles through cell, tissue and organ culture

i. Laboratory techniques and production of active drug principles

ii. Plant tissue and organ culture techniques

iii. Production of drug principles by tissue, organ culture and production improvement

iv. Development and application of tissue cultures technique for naturally rare and slow growing high value plant species for cost-effective production of drug compounds

v. Animal tissue culture technique

vi. Animal products

vii. Fermentation and production of microbial primary and secondary metabolites

b. Collection, storage and preservation for quality drugs

c. Trade of crude drugs

d. Some high value medicinal plants including spices, beverage, aromatic, etc. plants

d. Herbal wealth and its role in national economy


Methods of preparation of crude drugs and their evaluation, quality control and standardization <

a. Preparation of crude drugs for commercial market

b. Forms of occurrence of crude drugs in the market

c. Adulteration of crude drugs

d. Evaluation, quality control and standardization of crude drugs

i. Organoleptic evaluation (with the application of sense organs) - morphological, microscopic, scent, taste and other examinations of crude drugs

ii. Chemical evaluation

iii. Biological evaluation

iv. Physical evaluation

v. Quality control and standardization of crude drugs


Microscopy in pharmacognosy

a. Morphological and microscopic examination of crude drugs

b. Techniques of microscopy

c. Microscopic measurement

d. Microscopic authentication of crude drugs


Intellectual property

a. Intellectual property (IP) and intellectual property right (IPR)

b. Traditional knowledge (TK), traditional medical knowledge, genetic resources and traditional knowledge digital library

c. Types of intellectual property rights (IPRs): patents, trademarks, designs, copy rights, etc.

d. Intellectual property rights for herbal products and traditional medicine




ISBN-13: 9783319638614
Publisher: Springer (Springer International Publishing AG)
Publication date: October, 2017
Pages: None
Weight: 571g
Availability: Contact supplier
Subcategories: Complementary Medicine, Pharmacology


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