The recent emphasis in biomedical research on translational biology and personalized medicine is revolutionizing conceptual and experimental approaches to understanding and improving human health. Translational biology in medicine begins with an introduction to experimental model systems for disease, such as cell lines, primary cells, stem cells and animal models for disease, followed by a systematic description of genetic and genomic profiling and biomarker validation currently used in biomedical research. Examples of translation studies using these models and methods are presented, including studies in aging, tissue repair and chronic infection, each with an emphasis on how personalized medicine is transforming biomedicine. Bioethical considerations in translational study design and bioethical considerations in biomedical research are then covered, before concluding remarks, and a look towards the future of personalized medicine.
Model systems for disease: C.elegans; Mouse; Rhesus macaque; Mammalian cell lines; Primary cells; Adult stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells; Genomic and genetic profiling: Signatures for infection; Chronic inflammatory disease; cancer risk; Accelerated aging and longevity; Blood biomarkers: An overview of existing serum test strategies for disease severity; Risk for progression; Therapeutic benchmark targets; Examples of translational models and methods in studies of human aging, muscle tissue repair, and chronic infection; Bioethical considerations in translational study design and bioethical considerations in biomedical research; Concluding remarks and the future of personalized medicine.