Comprehension of the theories of aging requires rudimentary knowledge of oxidation and reduction reactions, protein function, cell organelles, mitosis, acquired immunity, and evolution, among other basic biological concepts. Without these fundamentals, students of biological aging struggle to learn the essentials of biological aging and how to appreciate the research advances in the field. Human Biological Aging: From Macromolecules To Organ-Systems is an introduction to human aging from the level of macromolecules to organ systems. Age changes in proteins, DNA, polysaccharides and lipids are discussed relative to known age-related alterations in structure and function produced by free radicals and oxidants. At the cellular level, age-dependent mechanisms that diminish organelle function are described. Cellular phenomena of replicative senescence apoptosis, autophagy and neuroplasticity are detailed as to their contribution to compromised cellular functions. Authored by a leader in the field, Human Biological Aging: From Macromolecules To Organ-Systems is an invaluable introduction for those studying human aging.
Preface vii About the Companion Website ix Section I THE FOUNDATION 1 1 ORIENTATION 3 2 MEASUREMENTS AND MODELS 17 3 EVOLUTIONARY THEORIES OF AGING 35 Section II BASIC COMPONENTS 47 4 AGING OF MACROMOLECULES 53 5 AGING OF CELLS 77 Section III ORGAN SYSTEMS: OUTER COVERING AND MOVEMENT: INTEGUMENTARY, SKELETAL MUSCLES, AND SKELETAL SYSTEMS 101 6 AGING OF THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM 103 7 AGING OF THE SKELETAL MUSCLE SYSTEM 123 8 AGING OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM 143 Section IV INTERNAL ORGAN SYSTEMS: CARDIOVASCULAR, PULMONARY, GASTROINTESTINAL, AND URINARY SYSTEMS 163 9 AGING OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM 165 10 AGING OF THE PULMONARY SYSTEM 193 11 AGING OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL AND URINARY SYSTEMS 207 Section V REGULATORY ORGAN SYSTEMS: CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, SENSORY, ENDOCRINE, AND IMMUNE SYSTEMS 223 12 AGING OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM 225 13 AGING OF THE SENSORY SYSTEM 255 14 AGING OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM 275 15 AGING OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM 303 Index 323