Developmental programming is a rapidly advancing discipline of great importance to basic scientists and health professionals alike. This text integrates, for the first time, contributions from world experts to explore the role of the placenta in developmental programming. The book considers the materno-fetal supply line, and how perturbations of placental development impact on its functional capacity. Chapters examine ways in which environmental, immunological and vascular insults regulate expression of conventional and imprinted genes, along with their impact on placental shape and size, transport, metabolism and endocrine function. Research in animal models is integrated with human clinical and epidemiological data, and questions for future research are identified. Transcripts of discussions between the authors allow readers to engage with controversial issues. Essential reading for researchers in placental biology and developmental programming, as well as specialists and trainees in the wider field of reproductive medicine.
Preface; 1. Introduction Graham J. Burton, David J. P. Barker, Ashley Moffett and Kent Thornburg; 2. The maternal and placental origins of chronic disease David J. P. Barker, Johan G. Eriksson, Eero Kajantie, Saleh H. Alwasel, Caroline H. D. Fall, Tessa J. Roseboom and Clive Osmond; 3. Pre and periconceptual health and the HPA Axis: nutrition and stress Alan A. Jackson, Graham Burdge and Karen Lillycrop; 4. Nutrition and preimplantation development Tom P. Fleming; 5. Materno-fetal transport pathways during embryogenesis and organogenesis Eric Jauniaux and Graham J. Burton; 6. Imprinted genes and placental growth: implications for the developmental origins of health and disease Benjamin Tycko and Rosalind John; 7. Genomic imprinting: epigenetic control and potential roles in the developmental origins of postnatal health and disease Elizabeth J. Radford and Anne C. Ferguson-Smith; 8. Trophoblast invasion and uterine artery remodelling in primates Robert Pijnenborg, Lisbeth Vercruysse and Anthony M. Carter; 9. The role of the maternal immune response in fetal programming Ashley Moffett; 10. Clinical causes and aspects of placental insufficiency Irene Cetin and Emanuela Taricco; 11. Uterine blood flow as a determinant of feto-placental development Lorna G. Moore; 12. Placental amino acid transporters: the critical link between maternal nutrition and fetal programming? Thomas Jansson and Theresa L. Powell; 13. The maternal circulation and placental shape: villus remodelling induced through haemodynamics and oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress Graham J. Burton and Eric Jauniaux; 14. Glucocorticoids and placental programming Owen R. Vaughan, Alison J. Forhead and Abigail L. Fowden; 15. Clinical biomarkers of placental development Gordon C. S. Smith; 16. The placental roots of cardiovascular disease Kent L. Thornburg, Perry F. O'Tierney, Terry Morgan and Samantha Louey; 17. Placental function and later risk of osteoporosis Cyrus Cooper, Laura Goodfellow, Nicholas Harvey, Susie Earl, Christopher Holroyd, Zoe Cole and Elaine Dennison; 18. The placenta and developmental programming: some reflections Robert Boyd and Richard Boyd; Index.