Currently serving as a resource for the National Center for Toxological Research in their work with the Gulf Coast oil spill, this book presents current research conducted primarily by the airforce on the toxic effects of JP-8 jet fuel on the pulmonary, immune, dermal, and nervous systems. In all, the book considers 13 toxicology studies of significance, the results of which are currently shaping US armed services policy. It will enable all of the hydrocarbon industry to make better choices regarding fuel handling. Due to its widespread use, jet fuel is thought to be the largest toxicant exposure risk for U.S. Armed Services personnel. Taking a proactive approach to the potential dangers of repeated human exposure to hydrocarbon fuels, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) sponsored a number of research projects during the last 20 years investigating health effects resulting from specific exposure to JP-8 (Jet Propellant-8). Jet Fuel Toxicology summarizes the newest and most important results of these extensive research programs carried out by hydrocarbon fuel research groups throughout the U.S.
Each book chapter highlights one specific research area from the many topical areas comprising jet fuel toxicology. After examining the contents and general action of JP-8, the book looks at how the fuel affects various body functions highlighted by: Effects on daily inhalation on the respiratory system Acute and long-term neurotoxicological and neurobehavioral effects Both local and systemic toxicity following exposure through the skin Immunotoxicity from pulmonary and dermal exposures Genetic damage, as evidenced in studies of the blood and bone marrow of mice In all, the book considers 13 major toxicology areas of study, the results of which will enable all of the hydrocarbon industry to make fuel choices that more carefully consider possible human health risks.
Perhaps even more importantly, the book profoundly demonstrates how unfortunate lessons from the following major chemical exposure scenarios of the past must not be lost in the ongoing protection of both military personnel and civilians: Agent Orange exposures during the Vietnam War Multiple chemical/stressor exposures, including multiple fuels and solvents, during the Persian Gulf Wars Chemical exposures, including Jet-A fuel, during the 9/11 World Trade Center Disaster Hydrocarbon/oil dispersing compound exposures during the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill Crisis of 2010 For example, based on data contained in this book, the Air Force now removes female personnel from any exposure to jet fuel during their pregnancies and has reduced permissible exposure levels to jet fuel for all military and associated civilian staff. Ultimately, this book can serve as a template for managing future toxicological issues for both international armed forces and those corporations willing to learn from these important lessons.
Air Force-Related Jet Fuel Toxicology Research (1991-2010), Walter J. Kozumbo Jet Fuel Composition, Tim Edwards The Toxicity and Underlying Mechanism of Jet Propulsion Fuel-8 on the Respiratory System, Simon S. Wong and Mark L. Witten Neurotoxicological and Neurobehavioral Effects from Exposure to Jet Fuels, Glenn D. Ritchie Differential Protein Expression Following JP-8 Jet Fuel Exposure, Frank A. Witzmann and Mark L. Witten Immune Modulation by Dermal Exposure to Jet Fuel, Gerardo Ramos and Stephen E. Ullrich Absorption, Penetration, and Cutaneous Toxicity of Jet Fuels and Hydrocarbon Components, James E. Riviere, Alfred O. Inman, and Nancy Monteiro-Riviere Methods of Assessing Skin Irritation and Sensitization of Jet Fuels, Jayachandra Babu, Ram Patlolla, and Mandip Singh Understanding Systemic and Local Toxicity of JP-8 after Cutaneous Exposures, James N. McDougal, James V. Rogers, and Richard Simman The Effects of Aerosolized JP-8 Jet Fuel Exposure on the Immune System: A Review, David T. Harris The Involvement of Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in Defense against JP-8 Jet Fuel and Other Chemical Toxicants, Luis A. Espinoza, Aria Attia, Eric M. Brandon, and Mark E. Smulson Evaluation of Methods Used to Generate and Characterize Jet Fuel Vapor and Aerosol for Inhalation Toxicology Studies, Raphael T. Tremblay, Sheppard A. Martin, and Jeffrey W. Fisher Genetic Damage in the Blood and Bone Marrow of Mice Treated with JP-8 Jet Fuel, Vijayalaxmi Computational Analyses of JP-8 Fuel Droplet and Vapor Depositions in Human Upper Airway Models, Clement Kleinstreuer and Zhe Zhang Human Exposure to Jet Propellant-8, Raymond H. Tu and Terence H. Risby