This book covers incidental radiological findings (IFs) from different perspectives, provides interesting ethical background information, highlights the differences between IFs in clinical routine and during research studies, explains the management of IFs with reference to practices in different countries. The prevalence of IFs is increasing due to the wider use of modern imaging modalities in routine clinical practice and large population-based cohort studies. The reporting of these findings may lead to further diagnostic investigations and treatment and must therefore be handled with knowledge and care. The management of IFs in clinical routine is regulated by the guidelines of the different academic societies, while management in the setting of research studies depends on a variety of factors. In general, IFs must be disclosed to the imaged subject if they are potentially clinically relevant, but subjects must also be protected from the consequences of false positive findings. This book, written by distinguished experts in their fields, discusses all these issues and will be of interest to radiologists, other clinicians, and radiographers/technicians.
Part I: Introduction: 1. Definition / Historical development "Incidental Finding" 2. Ethical aspects 3. Medicolegal aspects, informed consent Part II: IFs in population based imaging / reseach setting: 4. (Technical) prerequisites of population based imaging Part III: Handling / Management of IFs in different countries / population based studies: 5. SHIP 6. Nako 7. UK Biobank 8. Rotterdam study 9. Framingham 10. MESA 11. Southkorea 12. AGES Reykjavik Study 13. SWEDEN Part IV: Differences between IF in population based imaging and patients: 14. Differences between imaging modalities 15. Management Incidental Findings in patients 16. Categories of IFs / Examples of important IFs Part V: IF Follow up: 17. Methodology for IF Follow up 18. Statistical approaches 19. Effects on healthcare systems / costs