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Immunosenescence
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Main description:

Human immunosenescence contributes to morbidity and mortality in later life. The age-associated increasing incidence of cancer and cardiovascular disease plateaus at around 80 years of age in industrialised countries, but death due to infectious disease continues to increase up to 100 years of age and beyond. Understanding the reasons for age-associated alterations to protective immunity in the elderly would facilitate the development of interventions to reconstitute appropriate immune function, increase responsiveness to vaccination and extend healthspan. The majority of the papers collected in this volume therefore address not only the mechanisms responsible for immune ageing in humans but consider what might be accomplished to redress the erosion of immune competence with age. The first problem facing the gerontologist investigating human ageing is their longevity: most studies are conducted in a cross-sectional manner, in which parameters of interest in elderly cohorts are compared to young controls. However, the ageing trajectories of people now 80 years old, born at the beginning of the 20th century, will have been very different in mostly unidentifiable ways from those born towards the end of that century. These differences include population genetics, nutrition, stress, disease, and of course, medical treatment, all of which make these two populations hardly comparable.


Feature:

Addresses the mechanisms responsible for immune ageing in humans


Considers what might be accomplished to redress the erosion of immune competence with age


Contents:

1. Immune Risk Phenotypes and Associated Parameters in Very Old
Humans: A Review of Findings in the Swedish NONA Immune
Longitudinal Study........................................................................................1
Anders Wikby, Frederick Ferguson, Jan Strindhall, Rosalyn J. Forsey,
Tamas Fulop, Sine Reker Hadrup, Per thor Straten, Graham Pawelec
and Boo Johansson
Introduction................................................................................................................1
NONA Immune Subjects........................................................................................3
Health Parameters.....................................................................................................4
Immune System Parameters.....................................................................................4
Immune Parameters and Morbidity......................................................................4
Immune Risk Phenotype, Cognitive Impairment and Mortality..................5
Allostatic Load............................................................................................................6
IRP, T-Cell Differentiation and Persistent Viral Infection..............................7
TCR Clonotype Mapping......................................................................................10
Low Grade Inflammation......................................................................................11
IRP Movement..........................................................................................................11
Conclusions and Future Direction.......................................................................12
2. Scoring of Immunological Vigor: Trial Assessment of Immunological Status
as a Whole for Elderly People and Cancer Patients....................................15
Katsuiku Hirokawa, Masanori Utsuyama, Yuko Kikuchi
and Masanobu Kitagawa
Infection Is a Major Cause of Death in the Elderly..........................................15
A Significant Number of Cancer Patients Die of Infection...........................16
Assessment of the Immunological State.............................................................18
Restoration of Immune Function........................................................................ 20
Effect of Infusing Activated T-Cells in the Mouse Model.............................21
3. Remodelling of the CD8 T-Cell Compartment in the Elderly: Expression
of NK Associated Receptors on T-Cells Is Associated with the Expansion
of the Effector Memory Subset....................................................................24
Inmaculada Gayoso, M Luisa Pita, Esther Peralbo, Corona Alonso,
Olga DelaRosa, Javier G. Casado, Julian de la Torre-Cisneros,
Raquel Tarazona and Rafael Solana
Introduction............................................................................................................. 24
Expression of NKR on T-Cells in Ageing: The Expansion of CD8 T-Cells
Expressing NK Associated Receptors in the Elderly Is due to the
Expansion of Effector Memory 2 T-Lymphocytes.......................................25
CMV-Specific CD8 T-Cells Are Expanded in the Elderly Expression of
NK Associated Receptors................................................................................. 28
Concluding Remarks and Future Prospects..................................................... 30
4. Telomeres, Telomerase and CD28 in Human CD8 T-cells: Effects
on Immunity during aging and HIV infection..........................................34
Steven R. Fauce and Rita B. Effr


PRODUCT DETAILS

ISBN-13: 9780387768427
Publisher: Springer (Springer New York)
Publication date: January, 2008
Pages: 212

Subcategories: Diseases and Disorders, General Issues, Geriatrics