Some mild stresses have positive effects on survival and aging as shown in animal models. There is also a large body of research that demonstrates these hormetic effects on aging, health, and resistance to severe stresses and diseases in human beings. However, the data are dispersed in the literature and are not always interpreted as hormetic effects. Hormesis in Health and Disease reviews the evidence for hormesis in humans as achieved through a variety of stresses or stimuli, and discusses mechanisms of hormesis and its ethical and legal issues. Divided into four sections, this book presents the current state of research, including questions, debates, doubts, and controversies in hormesis. Section I covers the history and terminology of hormesis, describing its main features and providing necessary background information. Section II shows that hormetic effects can be caused by various stresses-including physical exercise, nutritional components, fasting, micronutrients, irradiation, heat, ischemia, and mental challenge-and can be observed both in organs and at the organism level. Section III reviews possible mechanisms of hormesis that have been elucidated at this point.
Section IV discusses the wider consequences hormesis may have for everyone. This book demonstrates that health beneficial hormetic effects do exist in human beings. It offers information to inspire key players to initiate new strategies to elucidate the strengths and limits of the dual nature of stress.
Section I History and Terminology Brief History of Hormesis and Its Terminology Edward J. Calabrese Pre- and Postconditioning Hormesis F.A.C. Wiegant Section II Evidence for Hormesis in Human Beings Exercise and Hormesis: Shaping the Dose-Response Curve Zsolt Radak Nutritional Components: How They Enhance the Ability to Adapt Antje R. Weseler and Aalt Bast Periodic Fasting and Hormesis Yan Y. Lam and Eric Ravussin Iron, Metabolic Syndrome, and Hormesis Kupper A. Wintergerst and Lu Cai Radiation Exposure Alexander Vaiserman Thermal Hydrotherapy as Adaptive Stress Response: Hormetic Significance, Mechanisms, and Therapeutic Implications G. Scapagnini, S. Davinelli, N.A. Fortunati, D. Zella, and M. Vitale Cardiac Ischemic Preconditioning and the Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Andreas Simm and Rudiger Horstkorte Cerebral Ischemia Yannick Bejot and Philippe Garnier Optimal Stress, Psychological Resilience, and the Sandpile Model Martha Stark Section III Molecular Mechanisms of Hormesis Molecular Stress Response Pathways as the Basis of Hormesis Dino Demirovic, Irene Martinez de Toda, and Suresh I.S. Rattan Inflammatory Pathways Salvatore Chirumbolo Oxidative Stress Response Pathways: Role of Redox Signaling in Hormesis Li Li Ji Section IV Hormesis in Risk Assessment Relating Hormesis to Ethics and Policy: Conceptual Issues and Scientific Uncertainty George R. Hoffmann Hormesis and Risk Assessment Edward J. Calabrese