Many remarkable medical technologies, diagnostic tools, and treatment methods have emerged as a result of modern physics discoveries in the last century--including X-rays, radiation treatment, laser surgery, high-resolution ultrasound scans, computerized tomography (CT) scans, and magnetic resonance imaging. This undergraduate-level textbook describes the fundamental physical principles underlying these technological advances, emphasizing their applications to the practice of modern medicine. Intended for science and engineering students with one year of introductory physics background, this textbook presents the medical applications of fundamental principles of physics to students who are considering careers in medical physics, biophysics, medicine, or nuclear engineering. It also serves as an excellent reference for advanced students, as well as medical and health researchers, practitioners, and technicians who are interested in developing the background required to understand the changing landscape of medical science. Practice exercises are included and solutions are available separately in an instructor's manual.
* Complete discussion of the fundamental physical principles underlying modern medicine* Accessible exploration of the physics encountered in a typical visit to a doctor* Practice exercises are included and solutions are provided in a separate instructor's manual (available to professors)* A companion website (modernphysicsinmedicine.com) presents supplementary materials
Preface and Guide to Using This Book xi Technical Abbreviations xv Timeline of Seminal Discoveries in Modern Physics xvii Timeline of Discoveries and Inventions in Modern Medical Physics xixChapter 1 Introduction1.1 Overview 11.2 The Meaning of the Term Modern Physics 51.3 Mortality 61.4 How to Use This Book 7Exercises 8Chapter 2 When You Visit Your Doctor: The Physics of the "Vital Signs"2.1 Introduction 102.2 Stethoscope 112.3 Sphygmomanometer and Blood Pressure 122.4 Electrocardiogram 152.5 Physics and Physiology of Diet, Exercise, and Weight 17Exercises 21Chapter 3 Particles, Waves, and the Laws that Govern Them3.1 What Is Modern Physics? 223.2 Light: Particle or Wave? 253.3 Atoms 303.4 Lasers 413.5 Relativity 453.6 Nuclei 533.7 X-Rays and Radioactivity 63Exercises 80Chapter 4 Photon and Charged-Particle Interactions with a Medium4.1 Overview 844.2 Mean Free Path and Cross Sections 854.3 Photon Interactions 874.4 Electron and Positron Interactions 98Exercises 104Chapter 5 Interactions of Radiation with Living Tissue5.1 Introduction 1075.2 Cell Death Due to DNA Radiation Damage 1085.3 Dependence of Cell Survival on the Dose 1125.4 Low Doses of Radiation 1165.5 Radiation Dose versus Altitude 119Exercises 121Chapter 6 Diagnostic Applications I: Photons and Radionuclides6.1 Overview 1226.2 Photons 1226.3 X-Rays and Gamma Rays 1336.4 Radionuclides 1566.5 Novel Ideas for Nuclear Imaging 166Exercises 168Chapter 7 Diagnostic Applications II: MRI and Ultrasound7.1 Overview 1717.2 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) 1727.3 Ultrasound 1997.4 Multimodal Imaging 220Exercises 224Chapter 8 Applications in Treatment8.1 Overview 2268.2 Treatment with Radiation 2268.3 Treatment with Particles 2338.4 Treatment with Ultrasound 2398.5 Treatment with Microwaves 2448.6 Treatment with Lasers 244Exercises 246Appendix A Constants, Powers of 10, and Conversions Mentioned in the TextFundamental Constants 247Powers of 10 and Their Prefixes 247Conversion Factors and Equations 248Appendix B Mortality Modeling 251Appendix C Evaluation of the Sound Field from One TransducerFar-field (Fraunhofer) Region 255Near-field (Fresnel) Region 257Notes 261Index 267