Few people make moral judgments by taking the theory first and then "applying" it to practical moral problems. This ethics textbook, purpose built for undergraduates, with your interests, needs, and experience in mind, proceeds in the way we first begin thinking ethically - that is, by encountering practical moral problems and then introducing theory for understanding the issues at hand and interrogating them. You will be encouraged not to accept uncritically what anyone says about the issues; the mission of the book is to assist you in informed, independent, critical thinking.
Built around a number of engaging case studies, each chapter:
* explains and defines the moral problem dealt with
* provides excerpts of readings on both sides of the issue
* analyses the problem, using the relevant theory
* empowers you to make informed and reasoned judgments of your own
The examples are ethical problems that everyone will recognize, ranging from widely resolved ethical judgments around racism and sexism, to more controversial debates such as assisted suicide, the death penalty, and an individual's right to privacy.
This focused approach creates discussion in the classroom, and provides an ideal entry point for anyone approaching ethics for the first time and looking to better understand ethical responsibilities within the contemporary world.
RACE, GENDER AND ETHNICITY
Chapter 1. RACISM
1.1 Basic Questions about Racism
1.2 What is Racism?
1.3 What is a Racist?
1.4 A Racist Philosophy
1.5 The Racist's Burden of Proof
1.6 Is there such a Thing as "Race"?
1.7 Are Some "Races" Superior to Others?
1.8 Ought Innately Superior "Races" to dominate Inferior "Races"?
1.9 Race, Rights and Utility
1.10 Racism and Universalizability
Chapter 2. SEXISM
2.1 Basic Questions about Sexism
2.2 What is Sexism?
2.3 What is a Sexist?
2.4 The Sexist's Burden of Proof
2.5 Is One Sex Innately Superior to the Other?
2.6 Ought One Sex to Dominate the Other?
Chapter 3. HISPANIC/LATINO ISSUES
3.1 Hispanics in America
3.2 Are Hispanics a "Race" or an Ethnic Group?
3.4 What Terms to Use and Who Should Decide?
3.5 Can "Hispanic" Be Defined?
3.6 Anti-Hispanic Discrimination
3.7 Hispanics, School Segregation, and Distributive Justice
Chapter 4. AFFIRMATIVE ACTION AND DIVERSITY
4.1 What is Affirmative Action?
4.2 The Evolution of Affirmative Action
4.3 Diversity to the Forefront
4.4 Affirmative Action and the University of Michigan
4.5 A Definition of Affirmative Action.
4.6 The Moral Issue.
4.8 Affirmative Action Distinguished from Reparations
4.9 Justice for Groups or for Individuals?
4.10 Is Affirmative Action Fair?
4.11 Diversity or Compensation for Past Injustice?
Chapter Five. SEXUAL HARASSMENT
5.1 What is Sexual Harassment?
5.2 The Potential for Misunderstanding
5.3 Sexual Harassment and Sex Discrimination
5.4 Is Sexual Harassment the Same as Sex Discrimination?
5.5 Sexual Harassment and Sexism
5.6 Sexual Harassment, Sexual Misconduct and Gender Harassment
5.7 Sexual Harassment and Privacy
5.8 Sexual Harassment and the University
PROFIT AND THE PLIGHT OF OTHERS
Chapter 6. CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY
6.1 The Problem
6.2 What are Corporations?
6.3 Liberal and Conservative Positions on Corporate Social Responsibility
6.4 What is the Basic Obligation of Corporations?
6.5 Possible Objections to Corporate Responsibility
6.6 What Social Responsibilities?
6.8 Corporations and Distributive Justice
6.9 Corporations and the Making of Moral judgments
Chapter 7. POVERTY AND WORLD HUNGER
7.1 What is Poverty?
7.2 Is Poverty Always Bad? Voluntary and Involuntary Poverty
7.3 How Serious a Problem is Poverty?
7.4 Are We Obligated Individually to Fight Poverty?
7.5. Are We Obligated Collectively to Fight Poverty?
7.6 Are Efforts to Fight Poverty Futile Under Present Socio-economic Conditions?
Chapter 8. CAPITALISM AND SOCIALISM
8.1 What are Capitalism and Socialism?
8.2 Freedom, Liberty and Rights
8.3 Natural Rights
8.4 Anarchism, Libertarianism, Conservatism and Liberalism
8.5 Liberty and Equality
8.7 Historical Materialism
8.8 Surplus Value
8.9 A Capitalist Conception of Distributive Justice
8.10 Are There Contradictions within Capitalism?
ANIMALS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Chapter 9. CARING FOR THE ENVIRONMENT
9.1 Why Care for the Environment?
9.2 Basic and Derivative Moral Considerations
9.3 Who or What Warrants Basic Moral Consideration?
9.7 Does Nature as a Whole Warrant Basic Moral Consideration?
9.8 An Argument for Giving Nature Basic Moral Consideration
9.9 An Anthropocentric Objection
9.10 Intended and Foreseeable Consequences of Environmental Impacts
Chapter 10. MORAL CONSIDERATION FOR ANIMALS
10.1 Kinds of Moral Consideration
10.3 Animals and Discrimination
10.4 Ought Humans to Dominate Animals?
10.5 Are Humans Naturally Superior to Animals?
10.6 What Extrinsic Value Does Human Intelligence Have?
10.7 Superiority and Dominance
AUTONOMY AND THE INDIVIDUAL
Chapter 11. PRIVACY
11.1 Why is Privacy Important?
11.2 Philosophical and Legal Foundations of Privacy
11.3 The Definition of Privacy
11.4 Personal Autonomy
11.5 The Paradox of Privacy
11.6 Setting Boundaries
11.7 The Prima Facie Right to Privacy
11.8 Violating Privacy for Political, Social or Personal Ends
11.9 Privacy and Conflicting Values
11.10 Privacy and Technology
Chapter 12. ABORTION
12.1 Is There Neutral Language With Which to Discuss Abortion?
12.2 What is It That is Aborted?
12.3 A Medical Perspective
12.4 Whose Interests Warrant Moral Consideration in the Abortion Issue?
12.5 Roe v. Wade (1973)
12.6 A Woman's "Right to Choose."
12.7 Do Men Have Rights in the Abortion Issue?
12.8 Do the Unborn Have Rights?
12.9 Human Beings and Persons
12.10 Abortion and the Killing of the Innocent
12.11 What Precisely is Abortion?
12.12 Hare's Golden Rule Argument
12.13 Toward a New Perspective on Abortion
12.14 The Basic Issue of Unwanted Pregnancy
Chapter 13. PHYSICIAN-ASSISTED SUICIDE
13.2 Is There a Right to Die?
13.3 Active and Passive Euthanasia
13.4 The Quinlan, Cruzan and Schiavo Cases
13.5 Consciousness, Coma and Persistent Vegetative States
13.6 Killing and Letting Die
13.7 Is There a Moral Difference Between Killing and Letting Die?
13.8 Is There a Slippery Slope from Suicide to Assisted Suicide to Euthanasia?
13.9 The Case for a Logically Slippery Slope
THE NONCONSENSUAL TAKING OF HUMAN LIFE
Chapter 14. THE DEATH PENALTY
14.1 The Death Penalty in America
14.2 What is Punishment?
14.3 Deterrence and Retribution
14.4 What is Retributivism?
14.5 Objection to the Retributivist Justification of the Death Penalty
14.6 Is the Death Penalty a Deterrent?
Chapter 15. TERRORISM AND WAR
15.1 The Problem
15.2 What is Terrorism?
15.3 The Rationalization of Terrorism
15.4 Who Are Terrorists?
15.5 How Some Terrorists View Themselves
15.6 Terrorism and the Killing of Innocents
15.7 What is War?
15.8 Can War Be Morally Justified?
15.9 The Just War Theory
15.10 War and the Killing of Innocents
15.11 War and the Killing of Soldiers
15.12 Are Soldiers Morally Expendable?
15.13 Is There an Absolute Right to Kill in Self-Defense?
15.14 The Paradox of the Moral Expendability of Soldiers