The psychotic symptoms of up to 30 per cent of schizophrenic patients do not respond adequately to treatment with antipsychotic drugs, other than clozapine. These refractory patients are generally among the most disabled of all people with schizophrenia and require special assessment and treatment. This volume presents the latest research and recommendations on the definition, causes and therapy of treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS). Methods for identification and optimal management of TRS are reviewed. Clozapine and other atypical antipsychotic drugs which are the primary treatment for TRS, as well as non-pharmacologic treatments such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, cognitive behavior therapy and ECT are discussed in depth. Potential causative factors and identifying features such as genetic factors, poor premorbid functioning, longer duration of untreated psychosis, and biological measures such as structural and functional brain abnormalities are also reviewed in depth in the present volume.