Until recently professionalism was transmitted by respected role models, a method that depended heavily on the presence of a homogeneous society sharing values. This is no longer true, and medical schools and postgraduate training programs in the developed world are now actively teaching professionalism to students and trainees. In addition, licensing and certifying bodies are attempting to assess the professionalism of practising physicians on an ongoing basis. This is the only book available to provide guidance to those designing and implementing programs on teaching professionalism. It outlines the cognitive base of professionalism, provides a theoretical basis for teaching the subject, gives general principles for establishing programs at various levels (undergraduate, postgraduate, and continuing professional development), and documents the experience of institutions who are leaders in the field. Teaching aids that have been used successfully by contributors are included as an appendix.
Part I. What Is to Be Taught: 1. The cognitive base of professionalism Sylvia Cruess and Richard Cruess; Part II. Theory: 2. Educational theory and teaching methods in the teaching of professionalism Yvonne Steinert; 3. Professionalism and the socialization of medical students Frederic Hafferty; Part III. Principles: 4. Principles for designing a program for the teaching and learning of professionalism at the undergraduate level Richard Cruess and Sylvia Cruess; 5. Resident formation: a journey into authenticity David Leach; 6. Supporting professionalism in the educational setting: changing the educational environment and the student's 'navigational skills' T. Inui, A. H. Cottingham, R. M. Frankel, D. K. Litzelman, A. L. Suchman and P. R. Williamson; 7. Assessment and remediation in programs of teaching and learning professionalism Louise Arnold and Christine Sullivan; 8. Developing professionalism across the generations Sharon Johnston and Mark Peacock; 9. Faculty development for teaching and evaluating professionalism Yvonne Steinert; 10. The relationship between teaching professionalism and licensing and accrediting bodies Sir Donald Irvine; 11. Educating the public about professionalism Jordan Cohen and Linda Blank; Part IV. Practice: Case Studies in Teaching Professionalism Across the Continuum: 12. Learning professionalism in a traditional or organ-based curriculum Erika Goldstein; 13. Learning professionalism in a problem-based learning curriculum Gillian Maudsley and C. M. Taylor; 14. Learning and fostering professionalism during residency Linda Snell; 15. Continuing professional development: a focus on professionalism Dave Davis.