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Introduction to Nanomedicine and Nanobioengineering
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Main description:

The first comprehensive and authoritative introduction toNanomedicine and Nanobioengineering


Nanomedicine and nanobioengineering fuse nanotechnology withmedicine and bioengineering. They are emerging new frontiers,providing challenges for fundamental research and opportunities forrevolutionary advances in medical technology. They also provide aglobal vision to produce breakthrough approaches for meeting ourcurrent and future healthcare needs.


Introduction to Nanomedicine and Nanobioengineeringprovides an integrated description of nanomedicine andnanobioengineering for next–generation diagnostics and therapy. Itpresents a basic introduction to a broad range of topics in anintegrated manner, so that individuals in all disciplines canrapidly acquire the background needed for research and developmentin this field. It is intended to serve both as a textbook foreducation and training, as well as a reference book that aidsfurther advancement in areas integrating nanotechnology withmedicine and bioengineering.


The book encompasses the fundamentals of nanomaterials design,bioengineering, nanodiagnostics, and nanotherapy. It is intended tobenefit investigators and students from the disciplines ofchemistry, physics, biology, biomedical sciences, and engineering,as well as medical, pharmacy, and dental school trainees andpractitioners, and scientists from the pharmaceutical and cosmeticindustries.


Back cover:

The first comprehensive and authoritative introduction toNanomedicine and Nanobioengineering


Nanomedicine and nanobioengineering fuse nanotechnology withmedicine and bioengineering. They are emerging new frontiers,providing challenges for fundamental research and opportunities forrevolutionary advances in medical technology. They also provide aglobal vision to produce breakthrough approaches for meeting ourcurrent and future healthcare needs.


Introduction to Nanomedicine and Nanobioengineeringprovides an integrated description of nanomedicine andnanobioengineering for next–generation diagnostics and therapy. Itpresents a basic introduction to a broad range of topics in anintegrated manner, so that individuals in all disciplines canrapidly acquire the background needed for research and developmentin this field. It is intended to serve both as a textbook foreducation and training, as well as a reference book that aidsfurther advancement in areas integrating nanotechnology withmedicine and bioengineering.


The book encompasses the fundamentals of nanomaterials design,bioengineering, nanodiagnostics, and nanotherapy. It is intended tobenefit investigators and students from the disciplines ofchemistry, physics, biology, biomedical sciences, and engineering,as well as medical, pharmacy, and dental school trainees andpractitioners, and scientists from the pharmaceutical and cosmeticindustries.


Contents:

PREFACE xiii


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xv


1 INTRODUCTION 1


1.1. Nanomedicine: A Global Vision 1


1.2. The Nanotechnology Revolution: Realization of Asimov′s Fiction 3


1.3. Nanomedicine: A New Era in Personalized Medicine 7


1.4. Nanomedicine: A Promise or Reality? 9


1.5. A New Frontier: Multidisciplinary Challenges and Opportunities 10


1.6. Scope of the Book: Multidisciplinary Education, Training, and Research 12


2 THE HUMAN BODY 15


2.1. Introductory Concepts 16


2.2. Cellular Structure 18


2.3. Various Types of Cells 23


2.4. Biochemical Makeup of Cells 25


2.5. Other Important Cellular Components 29


2.6. Cellular Processes 30


2.7. Organization of Cells into Tissues 37


2.8. Types of Tissues and Their Functions 39


2.9. Various Organs and Organ Systems in the Body 40


2.10. Tumors and Cancers 45


3 NANOCARRIERS 51


3.1. Nanocarriers: Delivering Payloads to Needed Sites 52


3.2. The Various Nanoformulations for Nanomedicine 53


3.3. Viruses as Nanocarriers 55


3.4. Polymeric Nanocarriers 56


3.5. Lipid–Based Nanocarriers 58


3.6. Dendrimers 59


3.7. Carbon Nanostructures 61


3.8. Inorganic Nanoparticles 63


3.9. PEBBLE 65


3.10. Nanoclinics 66


3.11. Nanoplexes 68


3.12. New–Generation Nanocarriers 69


4 NANOCHEMISTRY OF NANOCARRIERS 77


4.1. Nanochemistry and Nanomedicine 78


4.2. Top–Down Approaches 78


4.3. Bottom–Up Approaches 83


4.4. Combination of Bottom–Up and Top–Down Approaches 92


4.5. Nanoparticle Surface Modification 93


4.6. Functionalization and Bioconjugation 95


5 MULTIFUNCTIONALITIES FOR DIAGNOSTICS AND THERAPY 103


5.1. The Various Functionalities 104


5.2. Optical Functionalities 105


5.3. Optical Nanoprobes 110


5.4. Magnetic Functionality 116


5.5. Thermal Functionality 120


5.6. Radioactive Functionality 121


5.7. Biological Functionality 124


5.8. Multifunctionality 125


6 CROSSING THE BIOLOGICAL BARRIERS 135


6.1. Various Delivery Pathways 135


6.2. Various Biological Barriers 137


6.3. Stealth Nanoparticles 140


6.4. The Various In Vitro Barrier Models 141


7 BIOTARGETING 149


7.1. Biotargeting: Why We Need It 149


7.2. Targeted Biological Sites 150


7.3. Intracellular Uptake 151


7.4. Targeting Strategies 153


7.5. Targeting Groups 155


8 MULTIMODAL BIOMEDICAL IMAGING 163


8.1. Biomedical Imaging Techniques 164


8.2. Optical Bioimaging 170


8.3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging 185


8.4. X–Ray CT Imaging 188


8.5. Radio Imaging 190


8.6. Ultrasound Imaging 190


8.7. Photoacoustic Imaging 191


8.8. Multimodal Imaging 192


9 BIOSENSING 207


9.1. Principles of Biosensing 208


9.2. Optical Biosensors 211


9.3. Magnetic Biosensors 228


9.4. Electrical Biosensing 234


9.5. Electrochemical Biosensing 236


9.6. Electrochemiluminescence Biosensing 238


9.7. In Vivo Bioelectronic Sensors 239


10 HIGH–THROUGHPUT MULTIPLEXED DIAGNOSTICS 253


10.1. Comprehensive Diagnostic Strategy 254


10.2. Flow Cytometry 255


10.3. Enzyme–Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) 264


10.4. Microarrays Technology 269


10.5. Suspension Bead Assay 277


11 NANOPHARMACOTHERAPY 291


11.1. Nanopharmacotherapy: An Overview 292


11.2. Modes of Nanoformulation for Nanopharmacotherapy 294


11.3. Pharmacokinetics 296


11.4. Biodistribution 297


11.5. Pharmacodynamics 298


11.6. Controlled Release by External Activation 299


12 THE HUMAN CIRCULATORY SYSTEM AND THERANOSTICS 305


12.1. Blood Fluidics and Cardiovascular System 306


12.2. Circulatory–System–Based Disease Profiling 309


12.3. Methods to Monitor Blood Flow 312


12.4. Therapeutic Approaches Utilizing Manipulation of Blood Flow 318


12.5. Lymph Node Mapping 320


12.6. Lymphatic Drug Delivery 322


13 NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR CANCER 331


13.1. Benefits of Cancer Nanotechnology 332


13.2. Chemotherapy 335

13.3. Cancer Gene Therapy 339


13.4. Photodynamic Therapy 340


13.5. Magnetic Therapy 349


13.6. Photothermal Therapy 353


13.7. Neutron Capture Therapy 357


13.8. Circulating Tumor Cells 359


13.9. NCI Alliance for Cancer Nanotechnology 360


14 GENE THERAPY 371


14.1. The Principles, Steps, and Impact of Gene Therapy 372


14.2. Methods of Gene Delivery 374


14.3. Gene Augmentation Therapy 381


14.4. Gene Silencing Therapy 381


14.5. Indirect Gene Therapy Modulating Innate Immune Response 384


14.6. Transmucosal Gene Delivery 385


15 NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR INFECTIOUS DISEASES 393


15.1. Pathogen Infections and Nanoparticle–Based Approaches 394


15.2. HIV 401


15.3. Influenza 408


15.4. Tuberculosis 410


15.5. Malaria 416


16 REJUVENATION THERAPY 433


16.1. Rejuvenation Therapy: Fantasy or Reality? 433


16.2. Free Radical Scavenging 436


16.3. Chelation Therapy 439


16.4. Hormone Therapy 441


17 STEM CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY 447


17.1. Stem Cell Biotechnology: Overview 448


17.2. Cell Reprogramming 449


17.3. Gene Transfection 452


17.4. Somatic Cell Transdifferentiation 453


17.5. Stem Cell Sorting 454


17.6. Stem Cell Tracking 454


18 TISSUE ENGINEERING 461


18.1. Tissue Engineering: Overview 462


18.2. Tissue Regeneration 464


18.3. Nanotechnology in Tissue Engineering 467


18.4. Nanofibers for Tissue Engineering 472


18.5. Nanoparticle Delivery of Biomolecules 473


18.6. Magnetically Assisted Tissue Engineering 474


18.7. Tissue/Organ Printing 475


18.8. Tissue Bonding 477


19 NANODERMATOLOGY AND NANOCOSMETICS 487


19.1. Delivery Through Skin 487


19.2. Skin Care and Nanotechnology 488


19.3. Various Nanoparticles for Dermatology and Cosmetics 491


19.4. Nanodermatology 492


19.5. Nanocosmetics 494


19.6. Nanotoxicology of the Skin 497


20 NANODENTISTRY 503


20.1. Nanotechnology for Dental Care 504


20.2. Nanoparticles for Preventive Dentistry 507


20.3. Nanomaterials for Restorative Dentistry 509


20.4. Regenerative Dentistry 516


20.5. Nanoparticle–Enhanced Dental Imaging and Oral Diagnostics 519


20.6. Nanorobotics for Dentistry 522


21 NANOTOXICITY 529


21.1. Toxicity of Nanoparticles 529


21.2. Cytotoxicity 533


21.3. In Vitro Cytotoxicity Assays 535

21.4. In Vivo Toxicity 539


21.5. In Vivo Toxicity Evaluation 542


21.6. Nanotoxicity Studies on Selected Nanoparticles 542


Highlights of the Chapter 547


Exercises 550


References 551


INDEX 555


PRODUCT DETAILS

ISBN-13: 9781118351055
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Ltd (Wiley–Blackwell)
Publication date: June, 2012
Pages: 608
Dimensions: 157.00 x 240.00 x 35.91

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MEET THE AUTHOR

PARAS N. PRASAD, PhD, is the SUNY Distinguished Professorof Chemistry, Physics, Electrical Engineering, and Medicine; theSamuel P. Capen Chair of Chemistry; and the Executive Director ofthe Institute for Lasers, Photonics, and Biophotonics at theUniversity at Buffalo. He was named among the top 50 science andtechnology leaders in the world by Scientific American in2005. He has published 700 scientific and technical papers inhigh–impact journals, three monographs that practically defined thefields of organic nonlinear optics, biophotonics, andnanophotonics, eight edited books, and holds numerous patents. Heis the recipient of many scientific awards and honors (MorleyMedal; Schoellkopf Medal; Guggenheim Fellowship; Sloan Fellowship;Western New York Health Care Industries Technology/Discovery Award;Fellow of the APS, OSA, and SPIE). He is a pioneer in nanomedicineand nanobioengineering, and has been giving plenary, opening, andkeynote lectures worldwide in this field.