In the past decade, there has been an explosion of progress in understanding the roles of carbohydrates in biological systems. This explosive progress was made with the efforts in determining the roles of carbohydrates in immunology, neurobiology and many other disciplines, examining each unique system and employing new technology. This volume represents the second of three in the "Methods in Enzymology" series, including "Glycobiology" (volume 415) and "Glycomics" (volume 416), dedicated to disseminating information on methods in determining the biological roles of carbohydrates. These books are designed to provide an introduction of new methods to a large variety of readers who would like to participate in and contribute to the advancement of glycobiology. The methods covered include structural analysis of carbohydrates, biological and chemical synthesis of carbohydrates, expression and determination of ligands for carbohydrate-binding proteins, gene expression profiling including micro array, and generation of gene knockout mice and their phenotype analyses.
Section 1 - N-Glycan Function Revealed by Gene Inactivation Cytokine sensitivity and N-glycan processing mutations. Phenotype changes of Fut8 knockout mouse: core fucosylation is crucial for the function of growth factor receptor(s) Xiangchun Wang, Jianguo Gu, Eiji Miyoshi, Koichi Honke, Naouki Taniguchi Section 2 Neural Cell Function Cellular and molecular analysis of neural development of glycosyltransferase gene knockout mice. Analysis of Neural Cell Functions in Gene Knockout Mice Electrophysiological investigation of Synaptic Plasticity in Acute Hippocampal Slices. Analysis of neural cell function in gene knockout mice-behavior. Electrophysiological Anaysis of Interactions Between Carbohydrates and Transmitter Receptors Reconstituted in Lipid Bilayers. Section 3 - Notch Signaling and Muscular Dystrophy Methods for analysis of O-linked modifications on epidermal growth factor-like and thrombospondin type 1 repeats. Roles of O-fucosyltransferase 1 and O-linked fucose in Notch receptor function. Roles of O-Fucose Glycans in Notch Signaling Revealed by Mutant Mice. Defect in glycosylation that causes muscular dystrophy. Section 4 - Glycolipid Function Identification and analysis of novel glycolipids in vertebrate brains by HPLC/mass spectrometry. Roles of glycolipids in the development and maintenance of nervous tissues. Activation of Natural Killer T cells by glycolipids. Section 5 Glycolipid Interaction Determination of a glycolipid interaction specificity. Analysis of carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions using gold glyconanoparticles and oligosaccharide self-assembling monolayers. Section 6 Galectin Function Galectin interactions with extracellular matrix and effects on cellular function. Galectins in Apoptosis. On the Role of Galectins in Signal Transduction. Section 7 Newly Developed Field Helicobacter pylori adhesion to carbohydrates. Caenorhabditis elegans carbohydrates in bacterial toxin resistance. N-glycans are involved in the response of Caenorhabditis elegans to bacterial pathogens. Detection of Cytoplasmic glycosylation associated with Hydroxproline.