Evidence-Based Diagnosis explains diagnostic, screening, and prognostic tests in clinical medicine. The authors' approach is based on many years of experience teaching physicians in a clinical research training program. Although needing only a minimum of mathematics, the quantitative discussions in this book are deeper and more rigorous than in most introductory texts. The book includes numerous worked examples and 60 problems (with answers) based on real clinical situations and journal articles. This book is a great choice for anyone looking to select, develop, or apply medical tests. Topics covered include: the diagnostic process; test reliability and accuracy; testing and treatment thresholds; critical appraisal of studies of diagnostic, screening and prognostic tests; test independence and methods of combining tests; quantifying treatment benefits using randomized trials and observational studies; Bayesian interpretation of P values and confidence intervals; challenges for evidence-based diagnosis; likelihood ratios and ROC curves.
1. Introduction: understanding diagnosis and diagnostic testing; 2. Reliability and measurement error; 3. Dichotomous tests; 4. Multilevel and continuous tests; 5. Critical appraisal of studies of diagnostic tests; 6. Screening tests; 7. Prognostic tests and studies; 8. Multiple tests and multivariable decision rules; 9. Quantifying treatment effects using randomized trials; 10. Alternatives to randomized trials for estimating treatment effects; 11. Understanding P-values and confidence intervals; 12. Challenges for evidence-based diagnosis.