Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a psychiatric treatment involving the induction of a seizure through the transmission of electricity in the brain. Because of exploitation movies and greatly heightened drug company promotional activities ECT was used less frequently in the 1980s and 1990s. Eventually these movies were understood as unrealistic. Now these drugs are increasingly recognized as dangers to body health. Because of recent refinements and a far better scientific understanding of the clinical procedures and mechanisms underpinning ECT, this treatment modality has seen a resurgence in use and widespread appreciation of its safety. This book is the new definitive reference on electroconvulsive and neuromodulation therapies. It comprehensively covers the scientific basis and clinical practice of ECT as well as comparisons between ECT and medication therapies including the new generation of antipsychotic drugs. It also provides readers with administrative perspectives and specific details for the management of this modality in clinical practice. The new forms of nonconvulsive electrical and magnetic brain stimulation therapy are also covered in detail, in a separate section. The chapter authors are leading scholars and clinicians.
Preface Conrad M. Swartz; Part I. Scientific and Experimental Bases of ECT: 1. ECT and electricity Conrad M. Swartz; 2. Non-electrical convulsive therapies Niall McCrae; 3. Neurochemical effects of electrically induced seizures: relevance to the antidepressant mechanism of ECT Renana Eitan, Bernard Lerer, and Galit Landshut; 4. Hypothesized mechanisms and sites of action of ECT Nikolaus Michael; 5. Brain imaging and ECT Hal Blumenfeld and Kathy Peng; 6. Evidence for ECT efficacy in mood disorders Keith Rasmussen; 7. Clinical evidence for the efficacy of ECT in the treatment of catatonia and psychoses Gabor Gazdag, Gabor Ungvari, Stephan Mann, and Stanley Caroff; 8. Hormonal effects of ECT Conrad M. Swartz; Part II. Historical, Societal and Geographic Perspectives: 9. History of electroconvulsive therapy Edward Shorter; 10. ECT in biographical books and movies Andrew McDonald and Garry Walter; 11. Professional barriers to offering or providing electroconvulsive therapy William Reid; 12. Legislation that regulates, limits or bans ECT Alan Felthous; Part III. International Perspectives: 13. ECT availability in the United States Barbara Rohland and Michelle Magid; 14. ECT in Scandinavia and the UK Susan Benbow and Tom Bolwig; 15. Electroconvulsive therapy in continental western Europe: a literature review Walter W. van den Broek and Pascal Sienaert; 16. ECT in Asia Sidney Chang; 17. History of ECT in the Russian Federation Alexander Nelson and Nataliya Giagou; 18. ECT in Latin America Moacyr Alexandro Rosa and Marina Odebrecht Rosa; Part IV. Administrative Perspectives: 19. ECT hospital policy and quality assurance Barry Alan Kramer; 20. Staff management and physical layout for ECT Jerry Lewis; 21. ECT forms Jerry Lewis; Part V. The Clinical Manual: 22. Patient selection and ECT indications Conrad M. Swartz; 23. ECT or antipsychotic drugs (or benzodiazepines for catatonia) Conrad M. Swartz; 24. Informed consent Peter Rosenquist; 25. ECT in the medically ill Keith Rasmussen and Paul Mueller; 26. Anesthesia for ECT Charles Kellner, Dongchen Li, and Limore Maron; 27. Stimulus electrode placement Conrad M. Swartz; 28. Stimulus dosing W. Vaughn McCall; 29. EEG monitoring and implications Hideki Azuma; 30. ECT cognitive effects and testing J. Stuart Lawson; 31. ECT methods in children and adolescents Garry Walter, Colleen Loo, and Joseph Rey; 32. Post-ECT evaluation and prophylaxis Walter W. van den Broek and Tom K. Birkenhager; 33. Ambulatory and maintenance ECT Charles Kellner and Unnati Patel; Part VI. Neuromodulation Treatment: 34. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) Pinhas Dannon and Oded Rosenberg; 35. Vagus nerve stimulation: indications, efficacy and methods Mustafa M. Husain, Shawn McClintock, and Kenneth Trevino; 36. Deep brain stimulation: methods, indications, locations, and efficacy Thomas Schlaepfer and B. H. Bewernick; 37. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) Felipe Fregni and Julie Williams.