Cannabis dependence is controversial. Does it occur or is it a myth put forth by those who oppose legalisation? What are the signs of cannabis dependence? How many people are affected? What are the health and behavioural risks of becoming cannabis-dependent? What counselling approaches have been tested with adults and adolescents, and how effective are they? What are the arguments for legalisation, regulation or prohibition? Looking back and toward the future, what do we know and what do we need to learn? This state-of-the-science review sets out to answer all those questions, beginning with an historical examination and moving into diagnosis, classification, epidemiology, public health, policy, issues relating to regulation and prohibition, and evidence-based interventions.
Foreword G. Alan Marlatt; Part I. The Nature of Cannabis Dependence: 1. Themes in the history of cannabis dependence Roger A. Roffman, Sam Schwartz and Robert S. Stephens; 2. The diagnosis of cannabis dependence Thomas F. Babor; 3. Understanding the pharmacology and physiology of cannabis dependence Aron H. Lichtman and Billy R. Martin; 4. The epidemiology of cannabis dependence James C. Anthony; 5. The adverse health and psychological consequences of cannabis dependence Wayne Hall and Nadia Solowij; Part II. Interventions with Cannabis-Dependent Adults: 6. Cognitive behavioural and motivational enhancement treatments Robert S. Stephens, Roger A. Roffman, Jan Copeland and Wendy Swift; 7. Contingency-management interventions for cannabis dependence Alan J. Budney, Brent Moore, Stacey C. Sigmon and Stephen T. Higgins; 8. The marijuana check-up Robert S. Stephens and Roger A. Roffman; 9. Guided self-change: a brief motivational intervention for cannabis abuse Linda Sobell, Mark B. Sobell, Eric Wagner, Sangeeta Agrawal and Timothy P. Ellingstad; 10. Supportive-expressive psychotherapy for cannabis dependence Brin Grenyer and Nadia Solowij; Part III. Interventions with Cannabis-Dependent Adolescents and Young Adults: 11. The cannabis youth treatment study: the treatment models and preliminary findings Guy Diamond, Jodi Leckrone, Michael L. Dennis and Susan H. Godley; 12. The teen cannabis check-up: exploring strategies for reaching young cannabis users James Berghuis, Wendy Swift, Roger A. Roffman, Robert S. Stephens and Jan Copeland; 13. Engaging young probation-referred cannabis-abusing individuals in treatment Kathleen Carroll, Rajita Sinha and Caroline Easton; Part IV. Policy: 14. The policy implications of cannabis dependence Wayne Hall and Wendy Swift; Part V. Conclusion: 15. The nature, consequences and treatment of cannabis dependence: implications for future research and policy Robert S. Stephens and Roger A. Roffman; Index.