The past decade has been marked by the acceleration of our understanding of the molecular biology of cancer. Simultaneously, there have been increasing exigencies to diagnose, treat and follow cancer patients more economically. Biomarkers represent the marriage of science and economics. Biomarkers offer the potential to increase the precision of diagnosis, prognosis, and surveillance of urological malignancies. This issue presents the cutting-edge advances of biomarker technology to urologic oncology.