Skin, once thought to be an impenetrable barrier, is an extremely active organ capable of interacting with its environment. Advancements in science combined with the need for diverse drug delivery modalities have introduced a variety of transdermal and intradermal products for existing drugs at a fraction of the cost of new drug development. Commercialization of transdermal drug delivery requires technology from many disciplines beyond pharmaceutical sciences, such as polymer chemistry, adhesion sciences, mass transport, web film coating, printing, and medical technology.
A comprehensive discussion of these technologies and practices, Transdermal and Intradermal Delivery of Therapeutic Agents: Application of Physical Technologies covers: Commercial development of devices and products based on transdermal physical enhancement technologies Selecting optimal enhancement technology for a specific drug molecule using case studies Physicochemical properties and practical commercial considerations related to cost, unmet clinical needs, marketing, or intellectual property protection Technologies such as microneedles, iontophoresis, electroporation, and sonophoresis, with examples for delivery of small molecules, cosmeceuticals, proteins, and vaccines Practical information on experimental procedures and challenges related to skin irritation and safety issues Up-to-date and accessible to researchers and industry experts, this book provides a comprehensive discussion of the physical approaches and practical considerations for the laboratory and marketplace.
Percutaneous Absorption and Enhancement Strategies Structure and Enzymatic Activity of the Skin Percutaneous Absorption Passive Permeation Enhancement Strategies Active Enhancement Strategies for Percutaneous Absorption Experimental Methods and Tools for Transdermal Delivery by Physical Enhancement Methods Considerations in Selecting the Skin Model Transdermal Studies Tape Stripping and Microdialysis Instrumental Tools Used to Characterize Transdermal Transport Microporation-Mediated Transdermal Drug Delivery Skin Microporation by Microneedles Skin Microporation by Other Approaches Combination Approaches Applications of Microporation Iontophoretic Intradermal and Transdermal Drug Delivery Electrical Properties of Skin Pathways of Iontophoretic Drug Delivery Theoretical Basis of Iontophoresis Factors Affecting Iontophoretic Delivery pH Control in Iontophoresis Research Electroosmotic Flow Reverse Iontophoresis Treatment Protocols and Formulations Combined Use of Iontophoresis and Other Enhancement Techniques Applications of Iontophoresis Clinical Applications of Iontophoresis for Intradermal Delivery Skin Electroporation and Its Applications Electropermeabilization of the Skin Electroporation Equipment Factors Affecting Delivery by Electroporation Skin Toxicology of Electroporation Electroporation for Cancer Chemotherapy Delivery of Drugs by Electroporation Sonophoresis for Intradermal and Transdermal Drug Delivery Factors Affecting Sonophoresis Mechanisms of Ultrasound-Mediated Transdermal Delivery Delivery of Lipophilic Drugs Sonophoresis Devices Skin Irritation and Electrical Properties Transdermal Delivery Application of Sonophoresis Combination Approaches How to Go about Selecting the Optimal Enhancement Method for Transdermal Delivery of a Specific Drug Molecule: Case Studies Introduction Technology Comparison and Limitations Passive versus Active Patches for Transdermal and Intradermal Delivery Case Studies Transdermal Delivery of Peptides and Proteins Structural Considerations of Polypeptides Relevant to Transdermal Delivery Protease Inhibitors and Permeation Enhancers for Transdermal Protein Delivery Iontophoretic Delivery of Peptides Transdermal Delivery of Peptides and Proteins: Examples Transcutaneous Immunization via Physical Methods Immunology of the Skin Transcutaneous Immunization by Passive Approaches Microneedle-Based Intradermal Injection Microneedle-Mediated Vaccination Jet Injectors Delivery of DNA Vaccines, Genes, and Oligonucleotides Commercial Development of Devices and Products for Transdermal Physical Enhancement Technologies What Can Be Learned from the Passive Patches on the Market? Safety Issues and Effect of Heat Skin Irritation Testing Commercial Development of Microporation Devices Commercial Development of Iontophoretic Devices Formulation Considerations Patch Design and Regulatory Issues Dose and Bioavailability