Based on solid research and extensive practice in the field, this timely and necessary work provides critical guidance and valuable tools for clinicians, forensic scientists, investigators, and activists confronted with physical trauma in areas of violent conflict. It underscores the importance of differential diagnosis based on types, number, and sequence of wounds and fractures, providing examples from human rights violations, ethnic conflicts, and modern warfare across the world. A CD is included containing photographs, illustrations, and forms for use in the field. This unique work will greatly aid those scientists and humanitarian workers committed to giving a truthful voice to the dead.
An Epidemiological Approach to Forensic Investigations of Violations to International Humanitarian and Human Rights Law International Law and Forensics An Epidemiological Framework for Trauma Analysis Case Study: Estimating War Crimes from the Wounded to Killed Ratio: The Japanese Embassy, C.C. Snow, J. P. Baraybar, and H. Spirer Differential Diagnosis of Skeletal Trauma Reconstructing Skeletal Fractures to Identify Trauma The Anthroposcopic Examination of Skeletal Injuries Ruling Out Skeletal Variation and Skeletal Pathology Classification of Fractures and the Mechanisms of Injury The Microscopic Examination of Skeletal Tissue The Timing of Fracture Based on Gross Inspection Diagnosis of Injuries without Evidence of a Defect Radiography and Three-dimensional Imaging The Usefulness of Clothing as Evidence Photography Case Study: Finite Element Models of the Human Head in the Field of Forensic Science, J.S. Raul, B. Ludes, and R. Willinger Blasting Injuries Explosive Ordnance Devices Pathophysiology of Blast Injuries The Context: Fatal Environment and Intent Differential Diagnosis of Fragmented Blast from Gunfire Injuries Case Study: Skeletal and Soft Tissue Injuries Resulting from a Grenade, A.B. Seneviratne Case Study: A Case of Blasting Injury from Colombia, J.M. Pachon Case Study: "Human Bomb" and Body Trauma, A. Samarasekera Blunt Force Trauma The Pathophysiology of Blunt Force Injury Establishing the Number and Sequence of Injuries Cranial v. Post-Cranial Variation Blunt Force Injury Associated with Gunfire Injury Case Study: The Interpretation of Skeletal Trauma Resulting from Injuries Sustained Prior To, and as a Direct Result of Freefall, O. Finegan Case Study: A Khmer Rouge Execution Method: Evidence from Choeung Ek, S.C. Ta'ala, G.E. Berg, and K. Haden Skeletal Evidence of Torture Documented Cases of Torture in Skeletal Remains from Kosovo and Peru Differential Diagnosis of Blunt Force Trauma Resulting from Torture, Accidents, and Non-Accidental Mechanisms Case Study: Torture Sequels to the Skeleton, H.P. Hougen Case Study: Multiple Healed Rib Fractures: Timing of Injuries with Regard to Death, T. Delabarde Case Study: Dating of Fractures in Human Dry Bone Tissue: The Berisha Case, G.J.R. Maat Case Study: Torture and Extra-Judicial Execution in the Peruvian Highlands: Forensic Investigation in a Military Base, J.P. Baraybar, C.R. Cardoza, and V. Parodi Sharp Force Trauma Mechanisms of Sharp Force Wounds on Bone Identifying Sharp Injuries Sharp-Blunt Injury Associated with Chopping Weapons Case Study: Disappearance, Torture and Murder of Nine Individuals in a Community of Nebaj, Guatemala, S.C. Chacon, F. A. Peccerelli, L. Paiz Diez, and C. Rivera Fernandez Case Study: Probable Machete Trauma from the Cambodian Killing Fields, G.E. Berg Gunfire Injuries The Pathophysiology of Gunfire Injury to Bone Estimating the Class of Weapon and Ammunition Differentiating Entry from Exit Defects on Bone Establishing Bullet Trajectory Range of Fire Estimating the Number of Injuries Sequencing Multiple Gunfire Injuries Case Study: Firearm Basics, C.J. Waters Variation in Gunfire Wounds by Skeletal Region The Skull The Thorax The Limbs Case Study: Tyranny and Torture in the Republic of Panama, A.H. Ross and L. Suarez S. Case Study: The Pacific War: A Chilean Soldier Found in Cerro Zig Zag, Peru, E. Tomasto Cagigao, and M. Lund