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Practical Clinical Epidemiology for the Veterinarian
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Main description:

Practical Clinical Epidemiology for the Veterinarian provides thorough coverage of the fundamentals of epidemiological concepts, situated within the context of daily clinical practice. Examines epidemiology from the lens of daily clinical practice to offer a truly practical approach Demonstrates the relevance of epidemiology to clinical problems faced in the field using practical examples to clarify the concepts Includes clinical cases from all species, with an emphasis on small animal and equine medicine, to demonstrate the concepts Uses an easy-to-read approach, with graphs, flowcharts, and tables to promote understanding Includes access to a companion website with exercises for study and review


Contents:

Preface xi Acknowledgments xiii About the companion website xiv 1 Describing health and disease 1 Case definition 1 What is the problem? 2 Who is affected? 4 Where is the disease concentrated? 5 When does disease occur? 5 Types of measurements 5 Counts 5 Proportions 7 Ratios 8 Rates 9 Specific measurements of disease 10 Prevalence 10 Incidence 13 Morbidity 16 Mortality 16 Disease ]specific mortality 16 Case ]fatality 17 2 Basic epidemiology concepts 19 Outcome 19 Risk factor 21 Unit of analysis 22 Types of variables 26 Appropriate statistical analyses for continuous/parametric variables 27 Appropriate statistical analyses for categorical/nonparametric variables 29 Appropriate statistical analyses for multiple samples taken from the same animal 30 Control groups 33 Sample size and P ]value 34 Error and bias 35 Confounding 41 Interaction 42 3 Evidence ]based medicine for the veterinarian 44 Evaluation of a research paper 49 Data presentation in the results 53 Interpretation of results 57 Statistical significance 58 Biological significance 60 4 Study designs 62 Retrospective studies 63 Case control studies 64 Surveys 65 Cross ]sectional studies 68 Prospective studies 70 Cohort studies 70 Clinical trials 72 Sampling strategies 73 5 Causation versus association 77 Hill s criteria to determine causation 78 Temporal association 78 Consistency of association 79 Specificity of association 79 Dose response (biological gradient) 80 Biologic plausibility 81 Analogy 81 Measures of association 82 Odds ratio 84 Relative risk 89 Attributable risk 92 6 Diagnostic tests 94 Test quality 95 Accuracy 95 Precision 95 Discrimination ability 98 Test performance 99 Sensitivity 100 Specificity 102 Positive predictive value 104 Negative predictive value 105 Screening 107 Parallel testing 107 Serial testing 107 Gold standard 108 7 Outbreak investigations 109 Definitions 109 Steps in an outbreak investigation 110 Case definition/diagnosis verification 110 Determine the magnitude of the problem 111 Describe the spatial and temporal patterns of disease 112 Analyze potential risk factors 116 Follow ]up 119 Glossary 120 Formulas 125 Final word 128 References 129 Index 134


PRODUCT DETAILS

ISBN-13: 9781118472040
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Ltd (John Wiley & Sons Inc)
Publication date: April, 2015
Pages: 168
Dimensions: 172.00 x 243.00 x 8.00

Subcategories: Veterinary Medicine