With unintended harm during hospital care costing billions of dollars to the world economy, not to mention millions of deaths each year, it's no wonder the issue is equally front and center in the minds of healthcare providers and the public. Although the issue has been tackled in journal articles and conference proceedings, there are very few books on the topic. And none consider how methods and techniques developed in the area of engineering can handle safety and human error-related problems. Until now. Written by an expert with vast know-how in engineering management, design, reliability, safety, and quality, Patient Safety: An Engineering Approach brings together the pertinent information scattered throughout books and journals, eliminating the need to consult many different and diverse sources to find what you need. B.S. Dhillon draws on his real-world experience to demonstrate how to handle patient safety-related problems using engineering techniques and backs this up with references for further reading at the end of each chapter.
He sets the stage with introductory chapters on mathematical, patient safety, and human factors concepts essential to understanding materials presented in subsequent chapters. Dhillon's clear, concise discussion of the topics presents the information in such a way that no previous knowledge is required to understand the contents, yet he does not present it at a merely rudimentary level. He brings a fresh approach and engineering perspective to the issues, giving you a new tool kit for performing patient safety-related analysis, designing better medical systems/devices, and handling patient safety-related problems from an engineering perspective.
Introduction Background Patient Safety Facts and Figures Terms and Definitions Useful Information on Patient Safety Scope of the Book Problems References Patient Safety Mathematics Introduction Range, Mode, Median, Arithmetic Mean, and Mean Deviation Sets and Boolean Algebra Laws Probability Definition and Properties Probability Density Function, Cumulative Distribution Function, and Expected Value Definitions Probability Distributions Laplace Transform Definition, Common Laplace Transforms, and Final-Value Theorem Solving First-Order Differential Equations Using Laplace Transforms Problems References Safety and Human Factors Basics Introduction Need for Safety and Safety-Related Facts and Figures Common Causes of Work Injuries and Classifications of Product Hazards Common Mechanical Injuries Accident Causation Theories Safety Management Principles Human Factors Objectives and Disciplines Contributing to Human Factors Human and Machine Characteristics General Human Behaviors Human Sensory Capabilities Human Factors-Related Formulas Problems References Methods for Performing Patient Safety Analysis Introduction Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) Root Cause Analysis (RCA) Hazard Operability Analysis (HAZOP) Interface Safety Analysis (ISA) Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) Technic of Operations Review (TOR) Job Safety Analysis (JSA) Six Sigma Methodology Pareto Diagram Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) Markov Method Problems References Patient Safety Basics Introduction Patient Safety Goals Causes of Patient Injuries and Examples of Factors Endangering Patient Safety at Various Levels of Health Care Patient Safety Culture, Factors Contributing to Patient Safety Culture, and Its Assessment Objectives and Barriers Safer Practices for Better Health Care Areas of Improved Patient Safety from Enhanced Health Information Exchange Patient Safety Program Patient Safety Indicators References Medication Safety and Errors Introduction Medication Safety in Emergency Departments Medication Safety in Operating Rooms Drug Labeling or Packaging-Related Problems Prescribing Faults Medication-Use Safety Indicators Medication Error-Related Facts and Figures Medication Errors Types and Common Reasons for Their Occurrence Nursing-Related Factors in Medication Errors Occurrence General Guidelines to Reduce the Occurrence of Medication Errors Problems References Health Care Workers' Role and Safety and Falls Introduction Technology Commonly Used by the Nursing Profession Relationship between Nursing Workload and Patient Safety Health Care Worker Hazards Health Care Worker Musculoskeletal and Needlestick Injuries and Latex Allergy Health Care Workers' Slip-, Trip-, and Fall-Related Concerns and Prevention Strategies Inpatient Bed Falls Wheelchair-Related Falls Fall Prevention Recommendations for Acute and Long-Term Care Problems References Human Error in Various Medical Areas and Other Related Information Introduction Human Error in Anesthesia Human Error in Emergency Medicine Human Error in Operating Rooms Human Error in Intensive Care Units Human Error in Medical Technology Use, Laboratory Testing, Radiotherapy, and Image Interpretation Factors Contributing to Human Error in Surgical Pathology and Causes of Wrong-Site Surgeries Reasons for Clinicians Not Reporting and Disclosing Errors and Near Misses Guidelines for Preventing the Occurrence of Medical Errors Health Care Human Error Reporting Systems Problems References Medical Device Safety and Errors Introduction Types of Medical Device Safety and Medical Device Hardware and Software Safety Essential Safety Requirements for Medical Devices, Legal Aspects of Medical Device Safety, and Medical Device Electrical Safety Standards Software-Related Issues in the Safety of Cardiac Rhythm Management Products Classifications of Medical Device Accidents and Medical Device Accident Occurrence Probability Estimation Medical Devices with a High Incidence of Human Error Medical Device Operator Errors General Approach to Human Factors during the Medical Device Development Process for Reducing Human Errors Problems References Medical Device Usability Introduction Medical Device Users and Use Environments Medical Device User Interfaces and Use Description An Approach to Develop Medical Devices' Effective User Interfaces Useful Guidelines to Reduce Medical Device/Equipment User-Interface-Related Errors Designing and Developing Medical Devices for Old User Population Guidelines for Designing Hand-Operated Devices with Respect to Cumulative Trauma Disorder Useful Documents for Improving Usability of Medical Devices Problems References Patient Safety Organizations, Data Sources, and Mathematical Models Introduction Patient Safety Organization Types and Functions Governmental Patient Safety Organizations Independent Patient Safety Organizations Data Sources Mathematical Models Problems References Appendix: Bibliography-Literature on Patient Safety Index