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Organic Compounds in Soils, Sediments & Sludges
Analysis and Determination
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Main description:

The increasing awareness of the effects of pollutants in the eco-system and on the development of suitable methods of analysis has stimulated a lot of research recently. This volume comprehensively discusses the range of methods available for the analysis and determination of organic compounds in soils, river and marine sediments and industrial sludges. A review is provided of the instrumentation used in soil and sediment laboratories and an indication of the types of organics that can be determined by each technique. Subsequent chapters discuss the analysis of various types of organics in a logical and systematic manner. Guidance is provided on the applicability of techniques in certain environments, the advantages and disadvantages of using one method over another, likely interference, the sensitivity of particular techniques, and detection limits. The work will be of interest to agricultural chemists, agriculturists concerned with ways in which organic chemicals used in crop or soil treatment permeate the ecosystem and to biologists and scientists involved in fish, plant and insect life. Toxicologists, public health workers, oceanographers, and environmentalists will also find the book beneficial.


Contents:

Preface
1 Extraction of organic compounds from soil 1.1 Conventional solvent extraction 1.2 Accelerated solvent extraction 1.3 Pressurised liquid extraction 1.4 Microwave-assisted extraction 1.5 Subcritical water extraction 1.6 Solid-phase microextraction 1.7 Supercritical fluid extraction References
2 Organic compounds in soils 2.1 Hydrocarbons 2.1.1 Aliphatic hydrocarbons 2.1.2 Aromatic hydrocarbons 2.1.3 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) 2.2 Oxygen containing compounds 2.2.1 Alcohols, ketones and aldehydes 2.2.2 Carboxylic acids 2.2.3 Phenols 2.2.4 Methoxy groups2.3 Chlorine containing compounds 2.3.1 Chloroaliphatic hydrocarbons 2.3.2 Chloroaromatic hydrocarbons 2.3.3 Chlorophenols 2.3.4 Polychlorobiphenyls 2.4 Nitrogen containing compounds2.4.1 Aromatic amines 2.4.2 Nitro compounds 2.4.3 N-Oxides 2.4.4 Nitrosamines 2.4.5 Ethylene diamine tetracetric acid 2.4.6 Acrylonitrile 2.4.7 Polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocyclic2.4.8 Miscellaneous 2.5 Sulphur and phosphorus compounds 2.6 Volatile organic compounds 2.7 Polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorodibenzofurans 2.8 Miscellaneous organic compounds 2.8.1 Humic and fulvic acids 2.8.2 Mestranol 2.8.3 Trifluoroacetic acid 2.8.4 Flame retardants 2.8.5 Polystyrene 2.8.6 Further compounds 2.9 Mixtures of organic pollutants in soil 2.9.1 Gas chromatography 2.9.2 Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry 2.9.3 Purge and trap gas chromatography References
3 Insecticides and herbicides in soils 3.1 Chlorinated insecticides 3.2 Triazine herbicides soil extraction procedures 3.3 Phenoxy acetic acid herbicides 3.4 Carbamate type insecticides 3.5 Substituted urea herbicides3.6 Imidazolinone herbicide 3.7 Organophosphorus insecticides 3.8 Fungicides 3.9 Miscellaneous insecticides and herbicides 3.10 Multi insecticide/herbicide mixtures References
4 Organometallic compounds in soils 4.1 Organoarsenic compounds 4.2 Organolead compounds 4.3 Organotin compounds 4.4 Organomercury compounds References
5 Extraction of organic compounds from sediments 5.1 Non-saline sediments 5.2 Saline, marine sediments 5.2.1 Filtration methods 5.2.2 Separation by centrifugation 5.2.3 Fractionation methods 5.2.3.1 Fractionation by chemical leaching 5.2.3.2 Fractionation by sedimentation 5.2.4 Other fractionation methods References
6 Organic compounds in non-saline sediments 6.1 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons 6.2 Oxygen containing compounds 6.2.1 Phenols 6.2.2 Carboxylic acids 6.2.3 Aldehydes and ketones 6.2.4 Phthalate esters 6.2.5 Cationic detergent 6.3 Halogen containing compounds 6.3.1 Volatile aliphatic chlorohydrocarbons 6.3.2 Non-volatile aliphatic chlorohydrocarbons 6.3.3 Organohalogen concentration techniques 6.3.4 Chlorinated dioxins 6.4 Nitrogen containing compounds 6.5 Sulphur containing compounds 6.6 Phosphorus containing compounds 6.6.1 Alkyl and aryl phosphates 6.6.2 Inositol phosphate 6.6.3 Adenosine-5'-triphosphate 6.6.4 Nucleotides 6.7 Insecticides and pesticides 6.7.1 Organophosphorus insecticides 6.7.2 Organochlorine insecticides 6.7.3 Azine type herbicides 6.7.4 Carbamate type herbicides 6.7.5 Phenoxy acetic acid type herbicides 6.8 Miscellaneous organic compounds 6.8.1 Humic and fulvic acid 6.8.2 Detergents 6.8.3 Optical whiteners 6.8.4 Carbohydrates 6.8.5 Uronic acids and aldoses 6.8.6 Pharmaceuticals 6.8.7 Sterols 6.8.8 Miscellaneous References
7 Organometallic compounds in non-saline sediments 7.1 Organoarsenic compounds 7.2 Organolead compounds 7.3 Organotin compounds 7.4 Organomercury compounds 7.5 Organosilicon compounds References
8 Organic compounds in saline marine and estuarine sediments 8.1 Marine sediments 8.1.1 Hydrocarbons 8.1.1.1 Aliphatic hydrocarbons 8.1.1.2 Aromatic hydrocarbons 8.1.1.3 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons 8.1.2 Oxygen containing compounds 8.1.2.1 Carbohydrates 8.1.2.2 Surfactants 8.1.3 Halogen containing compounds 8.1.3.1 Chlorophenols 8.1.3.2 Polychlorobiphenyls 8.1.4 Nitrogen containing organic compounds 8.1.5 Sulphur containing organic compounds 8.1.6 Insecticides, pesticides and herbicides 8.1.6.1 Organochlorine insecticides 8.1.6.2 Organophosphorus pesticides 8.1.7 Miscellaneous 8.1.7.1 Priority pollutants 8.1.7.2 Humic and fulvic acids 8.2 Estuary sediments 8.2.1 Chlorobenzenes 8.2.2 Hexachlorophene 8.2.3 Polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated insecticides and polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbons 8.2.4 Sterols 8.2.5 Quaternary ammonium compounds 8.3 Lacustrine sediments 8.3.1 Aliphatic hydrocarbons 8.3.2 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons 8.3.3 Sterols 8.3.4 Unsubstituted and hydroxy substituted fatty acidsReferences
9 Organometallic compounds in saline sediments 9.1 Organoarsenic compounds 9.2 Organolead compounds 9.3 Organotin compounds 9.4 Organomercury compounds References
10 Organic compounds in sludges 10.1 Hydrocarbons 10.1.1 Aliphatic hydrocarbons 10.1.2 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons 10.2 Oxygen containing compounds 10.2.1 Alcohols 10.2.2 Aldehydes 10.2.3 Carboxylic acids 10.2.4 Phenols 10.2.5 Surface active agents 10.2.5.1 Anionic types 10.2.5.2 Cationic detergents 10.2.5.3 Non-ionic detergents 10.3 Chlorine containing compounds 10.3.1 Chlorinated hydrocarbons 10.3.2 Haloforms 10.3.3 Chlorophenols 10.3.4 Chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid 10.3.5 Polychloroinated biphenyl10.3.6 Polychloro-p-benzodioxins and polychlorodibenzofurans 10.4 Nitrogen containing compounds 10.4.1 Nitrilo acetic acid 10.4.2 Ethylene diamine tetracetic acid 10.4.3 Nitrosamines 10.4.4 Guanidines 10.4.5 Miscellaneous nitrogen compounds 10.5 Sulphur containing compounds 10.5.1 Alkyl sulphides 10.5.2 Thiosteroids 10.6 Phosphorus compounds 10.7 Insecticides pesticides herbicides 10.7.1 Organochlorine insecticides 10.7.2 Carbamate insecticides and fungicides 10.7.3 Organophosphorus insecticides 10.7.4 Triazine herbicides 10.7.5 Phenoxy acetic and herbicide 10.7.6 Mirex 10.8 Miscellaneous organic compounds 10.8.1 Cobolamin 10.8.2 Nucleic acids 10.8.3 Adenosine phosphate ether 10.8.4 Humic and fulvic acids 10.8.5 Sucralose 10.8.6 Organic carbon 10.8.7 Miscellaneous 10.9 Mixtures of organic compounds 10.9.1 Gas chromatography 10.9.2 Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry 10.9.3 High performance liquid chromatography 10.9.4 Ion-exchange chromatography 10.9.5 Gel filtration chromatography 10.9.6 Preconcentration References
11 Organometallic compounds in sludges 11.1 Organolead compounds 11.2 Organotin compounds 11.3 Organomercury compounds
References Index


PRODUCT DETAILS

ISBN-13: 9780203589489
Publisher: Taylor & Francis (CRC Press)
Publication date: April, 2017
Pages: 276

Subcategories: General Issues