This title includes a number of Open Access chapters. Nutrition is becoming ever more central to our understanding of metabolic processes. Nutritional biochemistry offers insight into the mechanisms by which diet influences human health and disease. This book focuses on five aspects of this complex field of study: nutritional genomics, clinical nutrition and biochemistry, vitamins and minerals, macronutrients and energy, and cell function and metabolism. Collected in this research compendium are recent studies within each of these topics. Each chapter contributes to a well-rounded and up-to-date picture of nutritional biochemistry. Appropriate for graduate-level and post-doctorate students, this book will stimulate further study into this important field of research.
Introduction Part I: Nutritional Genomics Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People; Artemis P. Simopoulos, Peter G. Bourne, and Ole Faergeman Diet, Genetics, and Disease: A Focus on the Middle East and North Africa Region; Akl C. Fahed, Abdul-Karim M. El-Hage-Sleiman, Theresa I. Farhat, and Georges M. Nemer Part II: Clinical Nutritional Biochemistry Consumption of Fructose and High Fructose Corn Syrup Increase Postprandial Triglycerides, LDL-Cholesterol, and Apolipoprotein-B in Young Men and Women; Kimber L. Stanhope, Andrew A. Bremer, Valentina Medici, Katsuyuki Nakajima,Yasuki Ito, Takamitsu Nakano, Guoxia Chen, Tak Hou Fong, Vivien Lee, Roseanne I. Menorca, Nancy L. Keim, and Peter J. Havel Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome by Combination of Physical Activity and Diet Needs an Optimal Protein Intake: A Randomized Controlled Trial; Frederic Dutheil, Gerard Lac, Daniel Courteix, Eric Dore, Robert Chapier, Laurence Roszyk, Vincent Sapin, and Bruno Lesourd A Prospective Study of Nutrition Education and Oral NutritionalSupplementation in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease; Glaucia A. K. Pivi, Rosimeire V. da Silva, Yara Juliano, Neil F. Novo, Ivan H. Okamoto, Cesar Q. Brant, and Paulo H. F. Bertolucci Paul Part III: Vitamins and Minerals Pharmacokinetics of a Single Oral Dose of Vitamin D3 (70,000 IU)in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women; Daniel E. Roth, Abdullah Al Mahmud, Rubhana Raqib, Robert E. Black, and Abdullah H. Baqui Causal Relationship between Obesity and Vitamin D Status: Bi-Directional Mendelian Randomization Analysis of Multiple Cohorts; Karani S. Vimaleswaran, Diane J. Berry, Chen Lu, Emmi Tikkanen, Stefan Pilz, Linda T. Hiraki, Jason D. Cooper, Zari Dastani, Rui Li, Denise K. Houston, Andrew R. Wood, Karl Michaelsson, Liesbeth Vandenput, Lina Zgaga, Laura M. Yerges-Armstrong, Mark I. McCarthy, Josee Dupuis, Marika Kaakinen, Marcus E. Kleber, Karen Jameson, Nigel Arden, Olli Raitakari, Jorma Viikari, Kurt K. Lohman, Luigi Ferrucci, Hakan Melhus, Erik Ingelsson, Liisa Byberg, Lars Lind, Mattias Lorentzon, Veikko Salomaa, Harry Campbell, Malcolm Dunlop, Braxton D. Mitchell, Karl-Heinz Herzig, Anneli Pouta, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) consortium, Elizabeth A. Streeten, Evropi Theodoratou, Antti Jula, Nicholas J. Wareham, Claes Ohlsson, Timothy M. Frayling, Stephen B. Kritchevsky, Timothy D. Spector, J. Brent Richards, Terho Lehtimaki, Willem H. Ouwehand, Peter Kraft, Cyrus Cooper, Winfried Marz, Chris Power, Ruth J. F. Loos, Thomas J. Wang, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, John C. Whittaker, Aroon D. Hingorani, and Elina Hypponen The Relationship between Folic Acid and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders; Yasmin Neggers Part IV: Macronutrient Composition, Energetics and Energy Balance Early Diet Impacts Infant Rhesus Gut Microbiome, Immunity, and Metabolism; Aifric O'Sullivan, Xuan He, Elizabeth M. S. McNiven, Neill W. Haggarty, Bo Lonnerdal, and Carolyn M. Slupsky Consumption of Fructose-Sweetened Beverages for 10 Weeks Reduces Net Fat Oxidation and Energy Expenditure in Overweight/Obese Men and Women; C. L. Cox, K. L. Stanhope, J. M. Schwarz, J. L. Graham, B. Hatcher, S. C. Griffen, A. A. Bremer, L. Berglund, J. P. McGahan, P. J. Havel, and N. L. Keim Effects of High Carbohydrate or High Protein Energy-Restricted Diets Combined with Resistance-Exercise on Weight Loss and Markers of Health in Women with Serum Triglyceride Levels Above or Below Median Values; Jonathan M. Oliver, Julie Y. Kresta, Mike Byrd, Claire Canon, Michelle Mardock, Sunday Simbo, Peter Jung, Brittanie Lockard, Deepesh Khanna, Majid Koozehchian, Chris Rasmussen, Chad Kerksick, and Richard Kreider Part V: Cell Function and Metabolism The Inhibition of the Mammalian DNA Methyltransferase 3a (Dnmt3a) by Dietary Black Tea and Coffee Polyphenols; Arumugam Rajavelu, Zumrad Tulyasheva, Rakesh Jaiswal, Albert Jeltsch, and Nikolai Kuhnert Treatment of Human Muscle Cells with Popular Dietary Supplements Increase Mitochondrial Function and Metabolic Rate; Roger A. Vaughan, Randi Garcia-Smith, Miguel A. Barberena, Marco Bisoffi, Kristina Trujillo, and Carole A. Conn Index