Fighting, biting, screaming and other behaviours that challenge the people dealing with them are often triggered by unsuitable surroundings or unrealistic demands. In this fresh and effective approach, Bo Hejlskov Elven shows how identifying and adapting these problem areas can dramatically improve behaviour in people with autism and other developmental disabilities. This practical book explains how to reassess difficult situations and offers easy and effective strategies for eliciting positive responses without resorting to restraint and punishment. Based on the successful low-arousal approach, it is a proven method of stepping away from distress and towards calm, improving the quality of life of everyone involved. Helpful examples covering a wide range of developmental disabilities from autism to Down's Syndrome illustrate the positive changes that can be achieved. This empowering book will be invaluable to anyone attempting to deal with unproductive behaviour in individuals with developmental disabilities, whether at home or in a professional environment.
Introduction.; 1. Challenging Behaviours: Definitions and Theories. What is challenging behaviour? Dangerous behaviour? Or just difficut? Throwing the blame on somebody else. History: Theories and therapies. A new outlook. Background to our conceptions. Summary.; 2. Conceptions and Misconceptions. The importance of self-control. Methods for managing behaviour. Consequence and structure. Conceptions of the causes of behaviour. Summary.; 3. Adjustment of Demands. Methods of adjusting demands. ability to respond to demands. Summary.; 4. Stress Factors: A Model for Coping. The effects of stress. Basic stress factors. Situational stress factors. Warning signs. Signs of chaos. Protective or claming factors. Summary.; 5. When Conflict Happens: Keeping it Calm. Theories of emotion and emotion contagion. The low-arousal approach. Creating diversions. Confrontation or intervention? Conflict-seeking service-users. Summary.; 6. Looking to the Future. Fundamental principles. Leaving the past behind. References. Index.