How does the genome, interacting with the multi-faceted environment, translate into the development by which the human brain achieves its astonishing, adaptive array of cognitive and behavioural capacities? Why and how does this process sometimes lead to neurodevelopmental disorders with a major, lifelong personal and social impact? This volume of Progress in Brain Research links findings on the structural development of the human brain, the expression of genes in behavioural and cognitive phenotypes, environmental effects on brain development, and developmental processes in perception, action, attention, cognitive control, social cognition, and language, in an attempt to answer these questoins. Leading authors review the state-of-the-art in their field of investigation, and provide their views and perspectives for future research. It includes chapters that are extensively referenced to provide readers with a comprehensive list of resources on the topics covered. All chapters include comprehensive background information and are written in a clear form that is also accessible to the non-specialist.